The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources. profits from exploration allowed for reinvestments in other areas. lead to inflation in Europe.
investors buy shares of stock to reduce risks of investing money in colonization. responsible for establishing Jamestown; England's first North American colony.
country's power dependent mainly on wealth. allowed nations to build strong navies, purchase vital goods. obtain as much gold and silver as possible or establish favorable balance of trade
favorable balance of trade
country sells more goods than it buys. ultimate goal to become self-sufficient, not dependent on other countries for goods. colonies played role of supplier and provided a market.
atlantic slave trade
buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas. became massive enterprise. many African rulers participated.
manufactured goods go to Africa, goods exchanged for slaves, slaves transported to West Indies, sold to Americas
voyage that brought captured Africans to West Indies, North and South America. middle leg of transatlantic trade triangle.
sea captain made voyage from Spain in 1492. discovered island with Taino people on it. discovered new world.
lands that are controlled by another nation.
landed in Mexico, looked to claim land for Spain. overtook Aztec empire.
spanish explorers who followed Cortés. colonized in Mexico, South America, U.S., first European settlers in America.
conquistador who marched into South America and conquered Inca. tricked and killed Incan ruler Atahualpa and took ransom.
Incan ruler. forces crushed. kidnapped and strangled after converting to Christianity.
mixed Spanish and Native American population.
natives farmed, ranched or mined for Spanish landlords. many laborers worked to death. sometimes mestizo children worked for parents.
drove out Mongol rulers. China became dominant power in Asia. had many vassal states that paid tribute.
first Ming emperor. encouraged return to Confucian moral standards. restored merit-based civil service exam system. later became ruthless tyrant.
power struggle after his father, Hongwu's death. moved royal court to Beijing. launched treasure ship voyages to impress world with splendor and power of Ming China.
Chinese-Muslim admiral. led all 7 treasure ship voyages. distributed gifts, gained tribute countries.
lived in Manchuria. invaded China, Ming Dynasty collapsed. began Qing Dynasty. expanded empire's borders.
upheld Confucian beliefs, social structures, made frontiers safe. accepted Dutch as trading partners.
emperor of Qing Dynasty. enjoyed company of Jesuits at court.
early portuguese explorer. hoped to obtain popular goods from Asia, Christianize.
Portuguese supporter of exploration. founded navigational school, sought wealth outside Europe.
Vasco da Gama
reached India. amazed by spices, rare skills, precious gems. gave Portugal a direct sea route to India.
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty to respect the line Pope Alexander VI drew. split up new world between Portuguese and Spanish. spurred age of exploration, colonization.
Dutch East India Company
establish direct trade throughout Asia. power to mint own money, make treaties, raise own armies. established trading headquarters in Batavia, conquered nearby islands.