The Albany Plan
Delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany in 1754 to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois. They also tentatively approved a proposal by Ben Franklin to set up a "General government" to deal with Indian relations. War began to break out when the Albany plan was presented to the colonial assemblies so no one approved of it.
Seven Years' War
A war that raged in Europe from the late 1750's and early 1760's. It was mainly a struggle between France and England. When the British won it confirmed their commercial supremacy and cemented its control of the settled regions of North America. The British called it the Seven Years' War, but in America it was known as the French and Indian War, this was the final step in a long struggle between three powers in North America: the English, the French, and the Iroquois.
White immigrants of French descent that owned black slaves in the lower Mississippi area on plantations similar to those in the southern colonies of English America.
The Iroquois Confederacy
The most powerful native American group in the Ohio Valley since the 1640', that was able to remain aloof from both the British and the French. This group consisted of five Indian nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida. These nations formed a defensive alliance in the fifteenth century. The Iroquois were able to maintain their autonomy by avoiding a close relationship with the English or the French. They traded successfully with both groups and played them against each other, as a direct result of this they maintained power in the Great Lakes region.
Queen Anne's War
A war the began in 1701 and continued for nearly twelve years. This conflict was brought to an end with the Treat of Utrecht in 1713. This treaty transferred substantial territory from the French to the English in North America.
King George's War
Two decades after Queen Anne's War, disputes over British trading rights in the Spanish colonies produced a conflict between England and Spain. This conflict soon grew into a greater, much larger European war. The English colonist in America were soon brought into this, and they called labeled it as King George's War. In this period between 1744 and 1748 they engaged in a series of conflicts with the French. The war was finally ended with a peace treaty.
He was the an inexperienced young colonel that was in charge of a militia force. This militia force was sent in the summer of 1754 by the governor of Virginia in to the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion. To do this Washington built a crude stockade called Fort Necessity.
This fort wasn't far from Fort Necessity. The Virginians staged an unsuccessful attack on this French detachment. The French retaliated with an assault on Fort Necessity, trapping Washington and his soldiers inside. A third of them died while fighting so Washington ended up surrendering. This fight marked the beginning of the French and Indian War.
He was the English secretary of state, and the future prime minister. He brought, in the second phase of the French and Indian War, for the first time, full control under British control. Pitt planned military strategies, appointed commander, and issued orders to the colonists. In 1758 he initiated the final phase of the war, he did this by relaxing many of the policies that Americans had found obnoxious. He also reimbursed the colonists for the supplies used by the army. He returned recruitment control back to the colonial assemblies, and he dispatched large numbers of British troops to America. This caused the battle to finally start turning in Britain's favor.
Along with James Wolfe, they were brilliant English generals who captured the fortress at Louisbourg in July 1758.
Marquis de Montcalm
Were forces that were surprised by General Wolfe's army In 1759 at the end of a siege in Quebec, the army of General Wolfe struggled up a hidden ravine under the cover of darkness. They did end up defeating the Marquis de Montcalm, but it cost them both commanders.
Battle of Quebec
Was the battle fought between General Wolfe's army and the Marquis de Montcalm, which General Wolfe won. This was the fall of Quebec and it happened on September 13, 1759. This marked the end of the American phase of the war
Peace of Paris 1763
Brought and end to the French and Indian War and the French ceded to Great Britain some of the West Indian Islands, most of their colonies in India and Canada, and all other French territory in North America east of the Mississippi. They also ceded New Orleans and their claims west of the Mississippi to Spain, thus surrendering all title to the mainland of North America.
King George III
He ascended to the throne in 1769 and assumed power. When he came into power he brought two particularly unfortunate qualities to the office. The first was his determination to reassert the authority of the monarchy. He removed power from the stable coalition that had governed the empire for much of the century and replaced them with his own unstable coalition, those of which only lasted for about two years. He also had serious intellectual and psychological limitations, for instance he suffered from a mental disease. This made the British government in this time very unstable.
He was appointed prime minister in 1763 by King George III. He shared the prevailing opinion within Britain that the colonists should be compelled to obey the laws and to pay a part of the cost of defending and administering the empire.
Was the Ottawa cheiftain who controlled an alliance of Indian tribes. These Indiana tribes struck back at English colonists who tried move into their lands.
The Proclamation of 1763
A document that forbade settlers to advance beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic coast from the interior. This was made because the British government knew that English colonist were advancing into tribal lands and that the Indian tribes were fighting back, so in fear that the fighting would escalate, they made this. However, in the end, this failed. White settlers continued to swarm across the boundary and claim more and more land in the Ohio Valley.
The Mutiny Act of 1765
This required the colonists to help provision and maintain the army, and it was made by the Greenville minisrty to try and increase their authority in the colonies..
The Sugar Act of 1764
This raised the tax on sugar, while lowering the tax on molasses. It also established new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers to cut them off from sypathetic local juries.
The Stamp Act of 1765
This act imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies: newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses.
The Paxton Boys
A band of Pennsylvania frontiersmen that descended from Philadelphia in 1763, to demand tax relief and financial support for the defense against the Indians.
A man that made a dramatic speech to the Hous in May 1765. This speech ended with a vague prediction that if the present policies were not revised, George III, like many other tyrants, might lose his head. At first cries of treason broke out, but ended when he introduced his set of resolutions.
The set of resolutions that was introduced by Patrick Henry. In them it was declared that Americans had to same rights as the English, especially the right to only be taxed by their own representatives; that Virginians should pay no taxes except those voted by the Virginia assembly; and that anyone advocating the right of Parliament to tax Virginians should be seen as an enemy to the colony. These resolutions were printed and circulated.
A man in Massachusetts that persuaded his fellow members of the colonial assembly to call an intercolonial congress to take action against the new tax. In October 1765, they met in New York as the Stamp Act Congress, which they called themselves, and they had delegates from nine different colonies. They sent a petition to the British government in which congress denied that the colonies could rightfully be taxed except throught their own provincial assemblies.
Sons of Liberty
In the summer of 1765, mobs were rising up everywhere in several different colonial cities, this was the biggest of these mobs and they were located in Boston. The men in this group terrorized stamp agents and burned stamps. They also attacked a pro-British lieutenant governeor and destroyed his house.
The pro-British lieutenant governor whose elegant house was pillaged and virtually destroyed by the Sons of Liberty. They did this to him because he supposedly supported the Stamp Act. Hutchenson, however, secretly opposed it, but when it became a low he felt obliged to support it.
An act pushed through by the new prime minister in England, Rockingham, and it confirmed parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." The colonies were too busy rejoicing over the repeal on the Stamp Act that they barley noticed this new declaration of Parliaments power.
The chancellor for Lord Chathem, the man who took office over Rockingham, but once he was in office he was incapacitated by mental illness most the time, so most of the leadership fell to Charles. When he began in office he had to deal with a lot of grienences from the Greenville ministry, and now that the Stamp Act was repealed the colonists biggest grievence was with the Mutiny Act of 1765, which required the colonists to provide shelter and supplies for Bristish troops. The colonists didn't have a huge problem in doing so, but just with the fact that London was forcing them to, so the Massachusetts and New York assemblies went so far as to refuse. Townshed responed to this by disbanding the New York Assembly until they agreed to oblige by the Mutiny Act. He also imposed new taxes, known as the Townshed Duties, on various goods that were imported such as lead, paint, paper, and tea. He assumed that since these taxes were on "external" goods only that the colonists wouldn't object.
This was on March 5, 1770, when a group of dockworkers began pelting rocks at the Captain of the British regiment's house. The Captain, Thomas Preston, lined up several men in front of the builing to protect it. Their was scuffling and one of the soldiers fell to the ground, in all this shots were fired into the crowd and five people were killed. Locals then transformed the accident that was a result of confusion and panic into something that was completely awful. A man named Paul Revere portrayed this event as a calculated assault on a peaceful crowd. What happend was blown up everywhere and the soldiers were tried before a jury of Bostonians and were found guilty on manslaughter and given token punishment.
He was the leading figure in formenting public outrage over the Boston Massecre. He argued that England had become a morass of sin and coruption. Also in 1772, he proposed that the creation of a "committee of correspondence" in Boston to publicize the grievances against England.
Committee of Correspondence
Was proposed in 1772, by Samuel Adams in Boston. Its purpose was to publicize the grievances against England. After this proposal many other colonies were inspired to follow Massachusetts lead, and soon a loose inter-colonial network of political organizations was established this kept the spirit of dissent alive through the 1770s.
Virtual and Actual Representation
The theory of virtual representation, according to the English constitution was that the members of Parliament did not represent individuals or particular geographical areas, instead each member represented the whole nation's interests and the entire empire, this including the colonies. Even though many members of the Parliament were not elected by any of the colonists. The Americans, however, drawing from their experiences with town meetings and colonial assemblies, believed in actual representation. This was representation for every community and the representatives being elected by the members of that community. They felt this was better suited for the colonies and that their assemblies were like the Parliament for England.
A British schooner that, in 1772, was boarded by angry colonists of Rhode Island, set on fire, and was sank. This act was the result of frustration among the colonists about the Navigation Acts, and it wasn't the first form of rebellion.
The Tea Act of 1773
This act was passed because in 1773, Britain's East India Company was sitting on large stocks of tea that they couldn't sell. They were on the verge of bankruptcy, so in effort to save it this act was passed by the government. This act gave the company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies without paying any of the regular taxes that were imposed on the colonial merchants, who had normally been the middleman in this transaction. With this the company was able to undersell American merchants and monopolize the tea trade. This act angered the colonist and reminded them of why they hated taxation without representation. The colonists responded by boycotting tea.
Daughters of Liberty
A women's patriotic organization that was committed to agitating against British policies. They were particularly important to the boycott movement and proclaimed " rather than Freedom, we'll part with our Tea."
The Boston Tea Party
An act that occurred in rebellion to the tea act in late 1773. Many leaders in colonies planned to prevent the East India Company from landing its cargoes in colonial ports. So colonies like New York and Philadelphia they kept the tea from leaving the ships, and in Charleston, colonists stored it in a public warehouse. This even occurred in Boston, however, on December 16, 1773. Companies of about fifty men each, disguised as Mohawk Indians, went aboard three ships and dumped all the tea into the harbor. Electrifying news of this "tea party" inspired other colonies to stage similar acts of resistance.
The Coercive Acts of 1774
Also known as the "Intolerable Acts," was what Parliament used in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party. These acts closed the port of Boston, which reduced the powers of self-government in Massachusetts. They also permitted royal officers in America to be tried in other colonies of England when accused of crimes. Finally they forced the providing of quartering of troops by the colonists. These acts were followed by the Quebec Act, and not only isolated Massachusetts, but made them seen as a martyr to the rest of the colonies, sparking new resistance up and down the coast.
First Continental Congress
Met in 1774, in Philadelphia, with delegates from all the colonies except for Georgia. This congress made five major decisions. The first was rejecting the the plan for a colonial union under British authority. Second, they endorsed a relatively moderate statement of grievances, sent to the king, whom they addressed as "Most Gracious Sovereign." In this they also asked for the repeal of all the acts since 1763. Third, they approved a series of resolutions recommending that military preparations be made for defense against possible attack by the British troops in Boston. Fourth, they agreed to a series of boycotts that they hoped would stop all trade with Great Britain. A "Continental Association" was formed to see that these agreements were enforced. Finally, the delegates agreed to meet again in the following spring.
A series of measures drawn up by Lord North, that were approved in 1775. Parliament proposed that the colonies would tax themselves at Parliament's demand. In doing so, Lord North hoped to separate American moderates, whom he believed represented the views of the majority. His offers, however, were too late and didn't reach America until after the first shots of war had been fired.
Lexington and Concord
Lexington was the town that Samuel Adams and John Hancock, rebel leaders, were supposedly in the vicinity of. Concord, a town 18 miles from Boston, was where the minutemen had stored a large supply of gunpowder. Lexington was also they place that General Thomas Gage, command of the British garrison, sent 1,000 troops on April 18, 1775, in hopes of surprising the colonists and seizing their weapons without any bloodshed. When the British arrived in Lexington, minutemen were waiting for them on the town common, and shots were fired; eight killed and ten wounded. After this the British advanced to Concord to gain the supplies, but upon the arrival they discovered that the Americans had hastily removed most of the powder supply.