Scholarly interest in the study of classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
Branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Also closely studied classical texts but also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. Cristian humanist like Desiderius Eramus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cerantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. (Ex. - Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella)
Direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
The centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granada.
A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.
Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of church and state.
Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned.
French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin
Rulers who put political necesities above personal beliefs. (ex. = Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England)
The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.
Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. This favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
A preindustrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. (ex. - manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make product parts to avoid restrictive guild regulations)
Business arrangement where many investors raise money for a venture too large for them alone. They share the profits in proportion to their investments. (ex. - invest in establishment of New World colonies)
System of government in which the ruler claims sole and unconstestable power. Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
Divine Right of Kings
The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. A key role in establishing French absolutism.
Series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. Key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
System of forced labor used in eastern Europe. Abolished in 1848.
Prussia's landowning nobility. Supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
Use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
18th century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. (ex. - Voltaire)
The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
A system of government supported by leading philosophes where an absolute ruler uses his powers for the good of the people. (ex. - Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great)
Process where British landlords consolidated/fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops.
Innovations in farm production in 18th century that replaced open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
Group of 18th century French economists led by François Quesnay. Criticized mercantilist regulations and wanted free trade.
Adam Smith's term for self-regulating nature of a free marketplace.