These were colonies such as Jamestown, they were operated by joint-stock companies (at least during the early years)
These were colonies such as Virginia after 1624, they were to be under the direct authority and rule of the king's government
These were colonies such as Maryland and Pennsylvania, they were under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.
(Southern Colonies) included Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. Had a cash crop agriculture, slavery was important, mostly illiterate, Protestant, very isolated, high death rates and unstable families.
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore I)
English noble; invested in the Virginia Company and eventually got land for his family; founder of Maryland as a haven for Catholics.
Cecil Calvert(Lord Baltimore II)
an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. He received the proprietorship that was intended for his father. (term) was person actually responsible for establishing the colony because his father dies immediately after being granted the land in 1632
Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
In 1607,this English colony became the first in America. Had the first form of representative government in the New World with the House of Burgesses. Low tobacco prices due to overproduction in the 1660's hit this colony's economy hard
Sir William Berkeley
the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years. This was implemented in order to try and spur the growth of the Chesapeake colonies and encourage people to migrate.
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land. It was implemented in order to try and spur the growth of the Chesapeake colonies and encourage people to migrate
Another form of attempting to revitalise the Chesapeake colonies. thousands were brought from Africa as cheap labor to work the lands.
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Providence (soon to be Rhode Island), which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
colony that was the first to allow for freedom of religion and separation of church and state, founded by Roger Williams after he was banished from Massachusetts
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Bay Colony in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
After Roger William was banished from Massachusetts he founded Providence where he recognised all religions and rights to all people, very tolerant. Meanwhile, Anne Hutchinson was also exiled for her religious beliefs from Bay Colony, she left to found the colony of Portsmouth and soon migrated south to Long Island were she was killed in an Indian uprising. Anyway in 1644, Roger Williams was granted a charter from English Parliament and hence joined Providence and Portsmouth into one single colony which is...
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
a puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven,In 1637 he acquired the patent for a colony in Massachusetts and sailed with much of his congregation for Boston. In March of 1638 he co-founded the Colony of New Haven, As a burgess, he was an important figure in the colony up until his departure to Boston in 1669
Founded by Thomas Hooker and his followers to escape religious persecution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut defined the powers of colonial government and allowed more men to vote than in Massachusetts. Had a limited degree of self government, including the election of of the governor
The last colony to be founded in New England. Consisted of a few settlements north of Boston. In 1679 King Charles II made it a royal colony.
A Puritan church document; Enacted in 1662 for fear that the church would lose membership due to less enthusiasm regarding religious faith and more interest in material success. It allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members.
New England Confederation
a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England. This was the largest conflict in 1675.
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
was one of a number of land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England in the latter half of the 17th century, ostensibly as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart Restoration. The grants marked the resumption of English colonization of the Americas after a 30-year hiatus. The two major restoration colonies were the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of Carolina.
Granted to eight nobles by Charles II as a reward for helping him gain the English throne. The North was settled mainly by poor tobacco farmers and the South became farmers of rice and indigo. They relied on African slave labor.
African slaves worked here in South Carolina; worked by African slaves; resembled the economy and culture of the West Indies
Frequently found in North Carolina. A lack of good transportation prevented these from growing into large plantations.
colony the English peaceably took back from the Dutch, then given to James II, duke of York and Albany (not yet king), who held almost unlimited power of the colony. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York
formed when James II gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people of this colony were granted the right to elect an assembly
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all, was the first colony to allow many different religions to live together
Frame of Government
1701 - This set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
Charter of Liberties
written constitution of Pennsylvania colony by William Penn which guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration in 1701.
In 1702 William Penn granted the lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly. This effectively created this separate colony.
The thirteenth colony. Two main reasons for it: First, to create a defensive buffer to protect the prosperous South Carolina from threat of invasion; second, to act as a sort of refuge for the thousands of debtors in England and letting them start their lives afresh instead of putting them in jail.
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that he was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by selling more goods than they bought and having the colonies work principally for the mother country
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Sir Edmund Andros
Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
the transatlantic trading network along which slaves, rum, molasses, gold, furs sugarcane and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies. Many many slaves died on this treacherous route.