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Excise Tax

Hamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and Gallatin

Pardoned

Action Jefferson took toward Republican "martyrs" convicted under the Federalist Sedition Law

Midnight Judges

Derogatory Republican term for Federalist judges appointed at the last minute by President Adams

Marbury vs. Madison

Precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall dismissed a Federalist judge's suit but also declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

Judicial Review

The principle, established by Chief Justice Marshall in a famous case, that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional

Impeachment

Action voted by the House of Representatives against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase and feared by Chief Justice Marshall

Navy

Branch of military service that Jefferson considered least threatening to liberty and most necessary to suppressing the Barbary states

Santo Domingo

Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's

Oregon Country

Territory beyond Louisiana, along the Columbia River, explored by Lewis and Clark

$15,000,000

Price paid by the United States for the Louisiana Purchase

The Chesapeake

American ship fired on by British in 1807, nearly leading to war between the two countries

Embargo Act

Jefferson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the United States

War Hawks

Militantly nationalistic western congressmen who were eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British

The Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian warriors Tecumseh and the Prophet

Mr. Madison's War

Derisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed it on the Republican president

Thomas Jefferson

Strong believer in strict construction, weak government, and antimilitarism who was forced to modify some of his principles in office

Albert Gallatin

Swiss-born treasury secretary who disliked national debt but kept most Hamiltonian economic measures in effect

John Marshall

Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review

Marbury vs. Madison

Ruling based on a "midnight judge" case that established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional

Samuel Chase

Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate

Pasha of Tripoli

North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805

Napoleon Bonaparte

French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States

Robert Livingston

American minister to Paris who joined James Monroe in making a magnificent real estate deal

Toussaint L' Ouverture

Gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon's sale of Louisiana

Lewis & Clark

Explorers who crossed the Louisiana Purchase territory and went on to Oregon and the Pacific coast

Aaron Burr

Former vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes

Chesapeake Affair

British attack on American sailors that aroused angry demands for war

Embargo Act of 1807

Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more

Tecumseh

Shawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against U.S. expansion

Henry Clay

Leader of Congressional "War Hawks" who pushed for the War of 1812

William Henry Harrison

Military leader who defeated Tecumseh's brother, "the Prophet," at the Battle of Tippecanoe

William Clark

Young army officer who joined Jefferson's personal secretary in exploring the Louisiana Purchase & Oregon country

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