Anatomy Lab 8

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List the Tarsal Bones

Calcaneus (heel), Talus (ankle), navicular, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform, cuboid

interosseous membrane

a strong fibrous sheet that connects interosseous margin of the tibia and the fibula, stabilizes this junction and provides attachment of the muscles

Tibial Nerve

supplies posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, as it passes medial to the ankle it divides into the medial and lateral plantar nerves

common fibular nerve

supplies the anterior (deep branch) and the lateral (superficial branch) compartments of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot (deep branch)

anterior tibial artery

supplies the anterior compartment of the leg, comes from the popliteal artery

posterior tibial artery

supplies the posterior compartment of the leg, comes from the popliteal artery

fibular artery

branch of the posterior tibial artery and supplies the lateral compartment of the leg

dorsalis pedis artery

supplies the dorsal side of the foot, comes from the anterior tibial artery

medial and lateral plantar arteries

supply the medial and lateral plantar surfaces, comes from the posterior tibial artery

Tibialis Anterior

muscle of anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot

extensor digitorum longus

muscle of the anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle

extensor halluces longus

muscle of the anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle

fibularis longus

muscle of lateral leg, innervation: superficial fibular nerve, action: everts foot and plantarflexes ankle

fibularis brevis

muscle of the lateral leg, innervation: superficial fibular nerve, action: everts foot and plantarflexes ankle

gastrocnemius

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, raises heel when walking, flexes knee at knee joint

soleus

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, steadies leg on foot

popliteus

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes knee, medially rotates tibia of unplanted limb

flexor halluces longus

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes great toe, plantarflexes ankle

flexor digitorum longus

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes lateral 4 digits, plantarflexes ankle

tibialis posterior

muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, inverts foot

extensor hallucis brevis

muscle of dorsum of foot, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: aids in extending great toe and metatarsophalangeal joint

extensor digitorum brevis

muscle of dorsum of foot, innervation: aids in extending 3 medial toes at metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints

abductor hallucis

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: abducts and flexes 1st digit

flexor digitorum brevis

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes lateral 4 digits

abductor digiti minimi

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: abducts and flexes little toe

quadratus plantae

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex 4 digits

flexor hallucis brevis

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex proximal phalanx of big toe

adductor hallucis

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct toe

flexor digiti minimi brevis

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex proximal phalanx of pink

plantar interossei (3 muscles)

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct digits 3-5, flex at MTP joint

dorsal interossei (4 muscles)

mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct digits 2-4, flex at MTP joint

lateral ligaments of ankle joint

anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament

medial ligament of ankle joint

deltoid ligaments

muscles that cause dorsiflexion of ankle

tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius

muscles that cause plantarflexion of ankle

gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, plantaris

muscles that invert foot

tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior

muscles that evert foot

fibularis longus, fibularis brevis

most frequently injured ligament in the body

anterior talofibular ligaments - inversion sprain

target cell

cells that respond to a specific hormone, has specific receptors on membrane

thyroid gland hormones

calcitonin- decreases blood calcuym by stimulating bone deposition, thyroid hormone - increases heat production/stimulates metabolic activity

parathyroid gland hormones

parathyroid hormone - increases blood calcium by promoting calcium release form bone, stimulating calcium absorption by gut, increasing calcium reabsorption from the kidney

pancrease-islet cells hormones

glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, pancreatic peptide

adrenal cortex hormones

corticosteroid

adrenal medulla hormones

epinephrine, norepinephrine

Thyroid

composed of 2 lobes joined by a central mass/isthmus, located in the neck, makes thyroid hormone produced by follicular cells, and makes calcitonin produced by parafollicular/C cells, composed of 1 layer of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding spherical follicles, center of each follicle is filled with glycoprotein gel called colloid, when active follicles appear small and colloid has ruffled border/hardly any, if inactive lots of colloid,

Parathyroid

usually four separate glands, embedded within posterior surface of each lobe of thyroid gland, has chief cells (most cells, small round nuclei, produce Parathyroid hormone) and oxyphils (red staining, large)

Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

stains lighter than exocrine cells, 3 major types of islets each secrete different hormone, columnar make up the acini of this tissue, the islets are made up of cuboidal

Adrenal gland

composed of cortex and medulla, cortex has 3 layers - zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis; outer cortex=endocrine cells secrete steroid hormones, medulla has modified neuronal cells (chromaffin) that secrete catacholamines, innervated by preganglionic fibers of sympa, covered with thick capsule

adrenal cortex

divided into 3 zones:
1) zona glomerulosa - arranged in loops and ovoid groups, nuclei round and stain darkly, contains lipid droplets, produces mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
2)zona fasciculata - largest zone, long parallel cords or columns of large cuboidal cells, produce glucocorticoids (cortisol)
3) zona reticularis - branching and anastamosing columns of smaller cuboidal cells, produce sex steroids (DHEA)
nothing separates this from the medulla cells

adrenal medulla

10% of the gland - assymetrically placed in the gland - large cells organized into ovoid clusters surrounded by fenestrated blood vessels, cells are modified post-ganglionic neurons called chromaffin cells - produce catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), stimulated by sympa preganglia

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