rules that A=T and G=C
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
origins of replication
site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides
Y-shaped region where the parental strands of DNA are being unwound.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
single-strand binding proteins
A protein that binds to the unpaired DNA strands during DNA replication, stabilizing them and holding them apart while they serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA
A protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, topoisomerase helps to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template
These are enzymes that catalyze the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork.
The newly forming daughter strand of DNA that is replicated in a continuous fasion; the daughter strand that is replicated in the same direction that parental DNA is unwinding.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments
in _______ _______, enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides that have resulted from replication errors. Researchers spotlighted the importance of such enzymes when they found that a hereditary defect in one of them is associated with colon cancer
DNA-cutting enzyme that removes damaged DNA
nucleotide excision repair
the process in which nuclease removes damaged DNA, and DNA polymerase and DNA ligase "fill in" the gap.
__________ are segments of DNA that do not contain genes and just consist of multiple repetitions of one short nucleotide sequence. (in humans, TTAGGG is repeated between 100 and 1000 times)
DNA and protein complex found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
chromatin that is packaged more tightly for replication
-largely inaccessible to cell "expression machinery"
less condensed, "normal," "true" chromatin
Meselson and Stahl
tested semiconservative model by growing bacteria on an N15 medium, transferring them to an N14 medium, and collecting the bacteria in different stages, harvesting the DNA, centrifuging it in cesium chloride, and locating where the DNA was in the cesium afterwards. The data strongly supported the semiconservative model