the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
the working class
a form of government in which a person or small group has absolute power
Matxists who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism
he idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected executive body and not to the executive officer
the Russian legislative assembly
What became the main commodities during the Second IR? (4)
What two commodities allowed new products to develop in the Second IR?
replaced iron; new methods of shaping steel made it lighter and more effective
How did steel benefit the Second IR?
easily converted to heat, light, and motion; moved by wires--connected homes and factories to one source of energy
How did electricity benefit the Second IR?
light bulb, telephone, transmission (telegrams) across Atlantic, streetcars, subways, new machinery in factories, internal combustion engine--ocean liners, airplane, automobile
Electricity led to what new inventions?
Thomas Edison; Joseph Swan
Who is MOST associated with the light bulb? Who is the other person associated with the invention of the light bulb?
Alexander Graham Bell
Who is associated with the telephone?
Who is associate with the transmission across Atlantic?
1903; Wright brothers from Kitty Hawk, NC
When was the first flight and who is responsible?
wage increases and lower prices allowed for higher consumption rates; department stores developed;new economic zones in Europe
What three new patterns of living developed as result of IR?
Great Britain, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Germany, northern Italy, and western Austria-Hungary
What seven areas in Europe were apart of the industrialized economic zone?
southern Italy, the rest of Austria-Hungary (not western), Spain, Portugal, Balkans,and Russia
What six areas in Europe were apart of the agricultural economic zone?
industrialized and agricultural
What were the two new economic zones in Europe that developed in result of the IR?
agricultural economic zone
provided food and raw materials to the industrialized nations
true global economy
What was the overall impact of the IR?
appalling living and working conditions caused them to form groups
What was the working class response to conditions during the IR?
socialist political parties and trade unions
What two groups were formed by the working class?
The new groups formed by the middle class formed in 1870s, but the idea was fostered by whom?
The Communist Manifesto
1848 Marx and Friedrich Engles blamed industrial capitalism for horrific conditions
Karl Marx advocated for new social system; what did this evolve into?
it is "history of class struggles" between oppressors and the oppressed
Karl Marx said what about world history?
bourgeoisie (middle class)
Karl Max identified this social class as the oppressors
proletariat (working class)
Karl Marx identified this social class as the oppressed
Who believed revolution would occur and proletariats would prevail and establish dictatorship with classless society?
Socialist groups and Trade unions
What are the two groups that formed by Marx's ideas?
German Social Democratic Party 1875 (SDP)
wanted revolution, became larges single party in Germany by 1912 and passed laws to improve conditions for workers
Second International 1889
conglomeration of socialist parties to fight against capitalism
right to strike
In 1870s the right to _________ allowed formation of unions
How many trade unions organized themselves by 1914?
made some progress in bettering living and working conditions by 1914
Liberal and Conservative
By 1871 what two parties were apart of Great Britain's two party system?
working classes in Great Britain supported ________ but ______made them more radical
What party in Great Britain was formed in 1900?
1906-1914: Who passed many reforms in Great Britain to retain workers?
National Insurance Act
protected against sickness and unemployment in Great Britain
National Insurance Act, pensions for elderly and sick, 1918 universal suffrage for men over 21 and women over 30
What are the three reforms mentioned from Great Britain that retained workers?
In France, what was formed after Louis-Napoleon;s Second Empire collapsed?
was formed with constitution, president, legislature, and premier in France
ran government along with ministers responsible to Chamber of Deputies
-1870 although national state struggles with unity; plagued by conflicts with labor and industry, divide between N and S, corruption in government
-universal male suffrage 1912 but corruption still rampant
Otto von Bismarck
In Germany, who provided the constitution?
Reichstag (lower house)
one of the house legislature in Germany that is elected by universal male suffrage
Otto von Bismarck
German who did not want democracy, made ministers answer him (chancellor or PM) and controlled the military, policies, and bureaucracy
Under what emperor in 1888-1918 was Germany very powerful nation, strongest military and industrial power in Europe, but public called for democratic reforms?
dual monarchy in 1867
In Austria, who ignored parliamentary system and issued own laws?
conflicting nationalities posed problems which caused Slavic groups to want freedom
Why did emperor Francis Joseph tighten grip on Austria?
functioning parliament with landowners in control
belief in absolute ruler (Rusia)
As result of horrible conditions in Russia ____________ grew.
Social Democratic Party and Revolutionaries
In Russia: two groups forced to underground due to oppression
Revolution of 1905
in Russia strikers marched on Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present grievances
produced rioters in Russia
Who created the Duma and granted limited civil liberties in Russia?
Civil War 1861-1865; 1/5 of population of white males died; slaves were freed in 1865 (13th amendment); citizenship of black males(14th amendment); 15th amendment- right to vote
What problems did the United States face from 1860-1914?
Jim Crow laws
By 1880 what stripped African Americans in the South of their rights
economy of the US
-shifted from agriculture to industrial 1860-1914; led in steel and iron production; Carnegie more than all of GB
-huge European migration: 11 million
-richest nation by 1900 but huge gap in wealth; 9% controlled 71% of wealth
-appalling conditions for workers; unions struggles and unemployment high
expansion of the US
-acquired Alaska from Russia 1867
-Samoan and hawaiian Islands (colony) in late 19th century
-Hawaii: deposed Queen Liliuokalani and annexed in 1898
-acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines b winning the Spanish-American War
Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick
What were the four provinces of Canada in 1870?
Manitoba and British Columbia
What two provinces did Canada add in 1871?
Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier
Who was able to unite the English and French speaking parts of Canada and improve the economy by the 20th century?
Otto von Bismarck (Germany)
feared competition from France
Otto von Bismarck (Germany)
allied with Austria-Hungary in 1879 and Italy in 1882; also signed separate treaty with Russia and kept good relations with GB
Who fired Bismarck in 1890 and dropped the treaty with Russia?
Russia and France
What two countries formed an alliance due to Germany's drop of the Treaty with Russia?
Triple Entente and Triple Alliance
What were the two alliances formed by 1907?
Great Britain, France, and Russia
What countries made up the Triple Entente?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
What countries made up the Triple Alliance?
-crises in the Balkans between 1908 and 1913
-1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, had formally been protected by them; Serbians outraged because hoped to unite to form large Serbian nation
-Russia also angered by Austria-Hungary's move and sided with Serbians; Germany threatened war with Russian if they didn't retreat
-Russia forced to back down due to losses from Russo-Japanese War
-The Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 caused further tensions
-hostilities and apprehension between countries would create a hotbed of tension that would lead to WWI
What ultimately led to WWI?