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Social psychology

the study of the causes and consequences of sociality

Agression

behavior whose purpose is to harm another

Frustration-agression hypothesis

a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted

Cooperation

behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit

Group

a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others

Prejudice

is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership

Discrimination

a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership

Deindividuation

a phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values

Diffusion of responsibility

the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way

Altruism

behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself

Kin selection

the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives

Reciprocal altruism

behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future

Mere exposure effect

the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure

Passionate love

an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction; has a rapid onset, reaches its peak quickly, and begins to diminish within just a few months

Companionate love

an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being; takes time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing

Social exchange

the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits

Comparison level

the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship; cost-benefit seems favorable when we feel it is the best we can do

Equity

a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal; spouses are more distressed when their respective cost-benefit ratios are different than when they are unfavorable

Social influence

the ability to control another person's behavior

Norm

is a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture; unwritten rule that governs social behavior

Normative influence

phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate

Norm of reciprocity

the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them

Door-in-the face technique

a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior

Conformity

the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it

Obedience

the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do

Attitude

an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event

Belief

an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event

Informational influence

is a phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right

Persuasion

a phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person

Systematic persuasion

the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason

Heuristic persuasion

the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion

Foot-in-the-door technique

involves a small request followed by a larger request

Cognitive dissonance

an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs

Social cognition

the processes by which people come to understand others

Stereotyping

the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong

Perceptual confirmation

a phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive

Self-fulfilling prophecy

the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see

Subtyping

the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them

Attribution

an inference about the cause of a person's behavior

Correspondence bias

the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by situation; sometimes called fundamental attribution error

Actor-observer effect

the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others

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