REVIEW - Chapter 4 - Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest

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1754 - 1775

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

George Washington

He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.

Edward Braddock

a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Sugar Act

(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.

Quartering Act (1765)

Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties..

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Patrick Henry

An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

This secret network of lawyers, merchants, tradesmen, and other townspeople organized colonial protests against British regulations. They proceeded with tarring and feathering some tax collectors in an attempt to intimidate them and bring a halt to their actions.

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Townshend Acts

Laws passed by Parliament in 1767 that set taxes on imports such as glass, paper, paint and lead to the colonies

Writs of assistance

Part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that it violated their rights as British citizens.

Albany Plan Of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

Peace of Paris

This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.

Salutary Neglect

british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government

John Dickinson

Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, he opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania

1767, Pamphlet by John Dickinson that argued against Taxation Without Representation, and that the only way that the colonies could properly be represented by the British government was if they had members in it. They were important in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts.

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

James Otis

a young lawyer in Boston, argued that colonists should not be taxed by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament. "no taxation without colonist representation"

Massachusetts Circular Letter

A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.

Lord Frederick North

Prime Minister of Parliament from 1770 to 1782. His harsh reactions to Colonial resistance created pressure that led to the American War of Independence

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Crispus Attucks

Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre

Committees of Correspondence

Organisation founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

Gaspee incident

In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.

Tea Act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants. Despite the low prices, the colonists resisted buying it as it would by symbolically giving into Britain and the tyranny.

Boston Tea Party

Boston patriots organised this to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

Port Bill

Britain closed Boston Harbor until the colonists would pay the money they owed the British East India Company.

Massachusetts Government Act

This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.

George III

English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.

Whigs

This political party favored Parliament over the crown

Parliament

the lawmaking body of British government

Administration of Justice Act

1774-Allowed a soldier or official accused of a crime to be tried outside the colony in British courts (Intolerable Act)

Quartering Act (Renewed)

Part of the Coercive Acts, expanded this original act so that British troops could now be hosted at private homes. This applied in all colonies.

Quebec Act

Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

Enlightenment

a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Jean Jacques Rousseau

A French philosopher who believed that Human beings are naturally good, free, and can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

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