Promotion mix (marketing communications mix)
The specific blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct-marketing tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships.
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.
Personal interactions between a customers and the firm's sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships.
Building good relations with the company's various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories, and events.
Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships—the use of direct mail, the telephone, direct-response television, e-mail, the Internet, and other tools to communicate directly with specific consumers.
Integrated marketing communications (IMC)
Carefully integrating and coordinating the company's many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent, arid compelling message about the organization and its products.
The stages consumers normally pass through on their way to purchase, including awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.
Personal communication channels
Channels through which two or more people communicate directly with each other, including face to face, on the phone, through mail or e-mail, or even through an Internet "chat."
Personal communication about a product between target buyers and neighbors, friends, family members, and associates.
Cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread information about a product or service to others in their communities.
Nonpersonal communication channels
Media that carry messages without personal contact or feedback, including major media, atmospheres, and events.
Setting the promotion budget at the level management thinks the company can afford.
Setting the promotion budget at a certain percentage of current or forecasted sales or as a percentage of the unit sales price.
Setting the promotion budget to match competitors' outlays.
Developing the promotion budget by (1) defining specific objectives; (2) determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objective; and (3) estimating the costs of performing these tasks. The sum of these costs is the proposed promotion budget.
A promotion strategy that calls for using the sales force and trade promotion to push the product through channels. The producer promotes the product to channel members who in turn promote it to final consumers.
A promotion strategy that calls for spending a lot on advertising and consumer promotion to induce final consumers to buy the product, creating a demand vacuum that "pulls" the product through the channel.
Tools in promotion mix
Sales promotion ;
Public Relations (PR);
mass audience, expensive, limited feedback
complex, persuasive, feedback, selective audience
short term, persuade to buy on the spot
Public Relations (PR)
news story, unpaid, word of mouth
computer, mail, phone, fax
Target audience (understand habits, needs, wants); Buyer-readiness states
Awareness (TV ads);
Knowledge (understand product);
Preference (better product);
Conviction (right product);
Point of sales actions to reach preference, conviction and purchase
Rational appeals (toothpaste);
Emotional appeals (fear, sex, humor);
Moral appeals (environment, children)
Word of Mouth
must have good product/service
expertise (expert spokesperson);
trustworthiness (public trusts spokesperson, often ordinary person);
% of sales (sales drive ads? ads should improve sales);
Competitive parity (based on market share);
Affordable (what's left over goes to ads);
Objective and task (what should ads do?, how much will it cost?)
Setting the Overall Promotion Mix
tools in promotion mix should reflect what you want to accomplish
Promotion Mix Strategies
Push (products pushed to retailer, retailers convince consumers to buy);
Pull (manufacturers convince consumers to buy, consumers ask retailers for product)
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