Holt McDougal World Geography Ch. 20 North Africa

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Sahara

Largest desert in the world; covers most of North Africa

Nile River

Longest river in the world; formed by the Blue and White Nile

silt

Finely ground fertile soil that is good for growing crops.

Suez Canal

Narrow waterway built by the French that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea

oasis

wet, fertile area in a desert where a natural spring or well provides water

Atlas Mountains

mountain range on the northwestern side of the Sahara near the Mediterranean coast. (13,600 ft.)

Aswan High Dam

controls flooding in the Nile River

Mediterranean climate

Winters are mild and moist, summer are dry and hot; Northern coast of Egypt has this.

Desert climate

covers most of the region; temperatures range from mild to hot

Steppe climate

recieve slightly more rain than desert; shrubs and trees grow along rivers and streams

Important resources

Libya- oil, agriculture. Egypt-oil, Tunisia- agriculture. Algeria- oil, agriculture. Morocco- fertilizers

Alexandria

city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC; important seaport, trading and learning center

Berbers

ethnic groupp who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language

Cleopatra

Greek descent who ruled ancient Egypt for 20 years

Pyramids

huge monuments built as tombs, or burial places for pharaohs.

Great Pyramid

one of the largest pyramids; contains 2.3 millions blocks of stone

Hieroglyphics

writing system developed by Egyptians; used pictures and symbols that stood for ideas or words

Alexander the Great

Macedonian king who captured and founded many cities; (also discovered bananas)

King Tut

19-year old who ruled Egypt; died mysteriously

Islam

major religion in North Africa

Couscous

made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta, usually steamed over boiling water or spup

Fuul

made with fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, lemons; served with hard-boiled eggs and bread.

Ramadan

month of the Muslim calendar; abstain from food and drink during the day

Naguib Mahfouz

bcame the first Arab writer to win Nobel Prize for Literature

Cairo

capitol of Egypt; largest urban area in North Africa

Maghreb

Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco

Souk

marketplaces

Free port

city in which almost no taxes are placed on goods sold there

Dictator

someone who rules a country with complete power

Gadhafi

dictator who supported many acts of violence against Israel and its neighbors.

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