In Britain, between 1750 and 1900, industrial output increased fiftyfold. The only way to export the mass amount of goods, a lot of textiles, was by steam engine. The steam engine harnessed renewable resources, water, in order to operate, so was not extremely costly. It aided the Industrial Revolution to its peak.
Indian Cotton Textiles
Originally, India exported fine-made and inexpensive textiles to Britain, a large market. This influx of textiles led the Brits to have a surge for industrialization themselves, and they started to make their own textiles. While not as good quality as India's, it became Britain's largest market, and eventually replaced the Indian Textiles trade fully. This led to the eventual colonization of India by the British.
British Royal Society
Established in 1660, this legion of scientists and philosophers promoted useful knowledge throughout the nation. The British Royal Society awared the public on recent scientific advances, held lectures and demonstraions, and even established mechanics' libraries. They intergrated science and technology, which allowed the Industrial Revolution to form from the Scientific Revolution.
The middle-class values were what seperated the middle class from the poor, and defined their character moreso than just having money. They put emphasis on respectability. Onto thrift and hardwork, rigid morality cleanliness. The distinguishments between the classes allowed the middle class to pursue small and large business.
The lower-middle class was one step up from labor forces and the manual expectations of the people. Those who resided in the lower-middle class were mainly in service-based operations and represented 20% of the British population by 1900. As the industrialization kicked off, these service-based industries remained important.
Helped create Socialism along with the ideas of Freidrich Engles. Marx proposed that Capatilism was unstable, and called for all poor to rise up against the rich. This revolution, between the Proletariats and the Bourgeoise, would forevermore create equality, or so he believed. While good in theory, Socialism never truly worked, thus furthering the difference between Socialist and Capitilist countries.
Political Party in Britain, founded in 1890s. They look at social reforms for industry workers while trying to maintain a peaceful transition into Socialism. They eventually radicalize and become prominent in Parliament, though Britian never becomes Socialistic.
Karl Marx defined a proletariat as a poorer citizen. Members of the bourgeoise, or the rich, oppresed the proletariats to the point of inequality. Marx called for an uprising of the proletariats. If the proletariats rebelled against the bourgeoise, equality would ensue and Socialism would begin.
Socialism in the United States
Socialism, for whatever reason, never made a huge impact in America. We had too much of hetergenous populations, so no one was truly equal, and our economies were better than those of Europe. In the 1912 elections, Socialism made its peak with 6% of the votes.
Progressives were reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses. They were the ones who wished to improve the ways government worked. They pushed for wage-and-hours legislation, sanitation, antitrust laws, and greater government intervention in the economy.
Russian Revolution of 1905
The Russian Revolution held in 1905 turned Russia onto the right track that it is today. They created a constitution, political parties, workers and laborer unions, and the national assembly. The national assembly was called the Duma, and somewhat ran the government.
Caudillos are military strongmen who were able to rise up in power during the turmoil in Latin America as leaders and were considered "defenders of order and property," though they replaced each other at a relatively fast pace. They established a government not unlike an oligarchy, which is a militaristic rule.
Latin American Export Boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes in Europe.
1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Natives, Mullatoes, and Mestizos. It was led by priests like Antonio Lopez.
It was the theory that poor countries can still develop economically like any other, but only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries. This was used to describe Latin America perfectly. Latin America did indeed develop, but only by the wealth and hegemony of the Europeans. For example, Britain invested heavily in Argentina, allowing it to prosper.