O.B. Exam 2 Pt. 1 (Ques)
|Recognition of Employees|| 1. The most powerful workplace motivator! |
2. Can be as simple as a spontaneous comment or can be formalized into a program.
|5 stage model group of group development|| 1. forming (uncertainty abt purpose, structure & leadership)|
2. storming (intragroup conflicts as members resist constraints)
3. norming (grp is cohesive with strong grp identity)
4. performing (grp fully functional & working towards a goal)
5. adjourning (for temp groups: breaking up)
|5 stage model of group development|| Storming, Norming, Ajourning, Performing, Forming. |
|Diversity as an asset?||(Learn & Understand)|
1. Culturally 'diverse' groups may perform better if they can get over there initial conflicts.
2. Surface level diversity of observable characteristics such as origin, race, & gender, alerts people of their differences in diversity- underlying attitudes, values, and opinions. Although these differences can lead to conflict, they also provide an opportunity to solve problems in unique ways.
|charismatic leadership||a theory that, followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.|
|transactional leadership||leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying the goals by clarifying the role of task requirements.|
|transformational leadership||leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests and who are capable of having a profound and extrodinary effect on followers.|
|Power||A capacity thats 'a' has to influence the behavior of 'b' so that 'b' acts to 'a's wishes.|
|Formal Power||power is based on an individual's position in an organization. It can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority.|
|Coercive power||a power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply.|
|Reward power||when people comply because it produces positive benefits; someone who can distribute rewards others view as valuable will have power over them. (Can be money, raises, recognition, promotions, or interesting work assignments.)|
|Legitimate power||the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization; it represents the formal authority to use organizational resources based on position in the org.|
|Personal power|| Come from an individual's unique characteristics. |
"2 bases: Expertise and respect and admiration of others".
|Authority||Right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed.|
|How an individual can get power?|| 1.It can be formal or personal. |
2.Formal- Being that it come's from an individual's position in the organization.
3. Personal- Can come from an individual's unique characteristics. (Power appointed to a leader for something he did.)
|Enhancement||Part of impression management, where you claim that something you did is more valuable than most other members of the organization would think. (Exaggerating your accomplishments.)|
|Rational Persuasion tactic||Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable.|
|Defense behaviors||Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change.|
|Self promotion||part of IM, highlighting one's best qualities, downplaying one's deficits, and calling attention to one's achievements. (Saying what you did, and what others didn't.)|
|Legitimacy tactic||Relying on your authority position saying a request accords with organizational policy or rules.|
|Scapegoating||Placing blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blame worthy.|
|Leader Member Exchange (L.M.X.)||1. a theory that supports a leader's creation of in-groups and out-groups; subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction. (May have been established from time pressure and a special small group.)|
|Ohio Studies initiating structure||The extent to when a leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. (Leader will assign group members to specific tasks, etc.)|
|Ohio studies consideration||The extent to which a person's job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. A leader of high consideration helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, treats all employees as equals and expresses appreciation and support.|
|Michigan Studies employee orientated leader||leaders who emphasize interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among leaders.|
|Michigan Studies production orientated leader||A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.|
|5 Factor Model of Personality/Leadership||Research has found Extraversion to be the most important trait of effective leaders; but more strongly related to leader emergence than to effective leaders.|
|Selective perception||the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent information.|
|emotional labor||a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. (Faking a smile as a restaurant host under organization's rules.)|
|grapevine||1. Def. An organizations informal communication network. |
2. Can be a way to receive information about a situation and reduce anxiety as well as fill a social need to connect.
3. '3 Characteristics'. Not controlled by management, perceived as being more believeable & reliable and often is, largely used to serve slef-interest of those willing to communicate.
|Information overload||This occurs when the volume of information a person receives exceeds his or her capacity to process it.|
|Direction of communication||The way communications can flow. Vertically, Laterally, Downward, or Upward.|
|Downward communication||Communication that flows from 'one' level of a group, to a 'lower' level of a group. (Manager sending letters to employee homes on sick-leave policy. Team 'leader e-mailing members of the team a message.)|
|Upward communication||Flow to a higher level in the group or organization. (Team Leader--> Manager--> Executive. )|
|Lateral Communication|| When communication takes place among members of the same work group or members at the same level. |
(Excutive->Exectutive. Manager-> Manager).
|Formal Communication Channel||Professional message channels for tranferring messages such as e-mails, memos, and planned speeches.|
|Informal Communication Channel||This channel is for transferring personal or social messages. This is more spontaneous in nature from individual choices such as who you eat lunch with.|