Describe some early cognitive attainments.
Describe the cognitive development sequence.
0-4 months: Reflexive --> 4-8 months: Coordinating --> 8-12 months: Intentional --> 12-18 months: Explores --> 18-24 months: Functional
What is cognition?
The ability to know and learn; mental representations and the ability to manipulate them
Describe the relationship between cognitive development and language.
Cognition and language are related but not causal. They develop at the same time. You can enhance cognition through language and language through cognition.
27-30 months of age is when which Brown's grammatical morphemes develop?
31-34 months of age is when which Brown's grammatical morphemes develop?
43-46 months of age is when which Brown's grammatical morphemes develop?
Regular past tense -ed
Irregular past tense
Regular 3rd person singular -s
Articles a, the, an
Contractible copula be
47-50 months of age is when which Brown's grammatical morphemes develop?
Uncontractible copula be
Irregular 3rd person
What semantic skills should emerge around 12-26 months?
entity attribute (nice cat)
demonstrative entity (That kitty)
recurrence (more juice)
denial (not juice)
dissapearance (allgone juice)
What pragmatic skills should emerge around 12-26 months?
sustains 1 turn
primitive understanding of what listener knows
What pragmatic skills develop from 27-30 months of age?
conversational repair (attempts but often unsuccessful)
What syntactic skills develop from 31-34 months of age?
Simple sentence forms
Use of negatives (baby not cry)
What pragmatic skills develop from 35-40 months of age?
More than 2 turns
Beginning to understand what the listener needs to know
What pragmatic skills develop from 41-36 months of age?
More than 2 turns
Meets listener's needs (if within linguistic and cognitive skill)
What are the stages of pragmatic development?
1. perlocutionary (not intentional)
2. illocutionary (intentional)
3. locutionary (words convey message)
What is syntax?
organization of the rules specifying word order, sentence organization, and word relationships
What are the constituents of pragmatics?
topic maintenance, turn taking, discourse genre, proximity, topic shifting, presuppositional skills
What is specific language impairment (SLI)?
children who have language differences only- normal in all other areas of development
What are the linguistic features of SLI?
Slow onset and rate of development for all language domains (not diagnosed until ~4-8 years)
Form is most impacted
Poor phonological processing (phonological awareness, memory, RAN, word retrieval)
Grammatical morphemes slow to develop
Failure to combine words at 18-24 months
Produce syntactic errors for longer time
Late first word
What are the non-linguistic features of SLI?
Cognition: problems with symbolic play, classification, figurative thinking, representational thought, hypothesis formation, speed/efficiency of processing
Peer interaction: socially dispreferred, passive
What is slow expressive language development (SELD)?
Toddlers who are late in talking
Diagnosed at 2 years of age if
-fewer than 50 words
-no word combinations
-little productive language
What are the predictors or risk factors for SLI?
Low mother education level
Less joint attention/commenting
Less thematic play
Less babble complexity
Simple phonetic inventory
What linguistic areas are impacted in individuals with Down's Syndrome?
Morphosyntax: main area
-moderate cognitive disability may limit syntax
-limited morphological development
Semantics: good comprehension
-poor expression of vocab
Pragmatics: good socially
-poor with attention to objects/joint attention
-use more gestures
Reading: basic level
What is Asperger syndrome?
Normal cognitive and language development with social and behavioral symptoms of autism
What areas do children with Autism have difficulty in?
1. Social interaction
4. Intentional communication
What difficulties do children with Autism have with social interaction?
Lack of social/emotional reciprocity
What difficulties do children with Autism have with communication?
Delay or total lack of spoken language
Idiosyncratic use of language
What difficulties do children with Autism have with behavior?
Restricted pattern of interest
Inflexible adherence to routines
Stereotyped motor movements
What difficulties do children with Autism have with intentional communication?
Lack of joint attention
Abnormal response to human faces
What difficulties do children with Autism have with speech?
Significantly slow rate of acquisition
What difficulties do children with Autism have with language?
Form and vocabulary is equal to mental age (usually)
Pragmatics are significantly impaired
What does a comprehensive language evaluation entail?
Comprehensive, norm-referenced test (e.g., PLS-4)
1-2 single area tests (1 for comprehension, 1 for production)
Observation at pre-K
Name constituents of content that need assessed when taking a language sample.
Total number of words
Number of different words
Types of words
Appropriate word use
Name constituents of form that need assessed when taking a language sample.
Name constituents of use that need assessed when taking a language sample.
Type of communicator
Name constituents of cognition than need assessed when taking a language sample.
Responsiveness to communication partner
When planning intervention for a child who is culturally-linguistically diverse, you need to know what 4 things about the child's cultural values?
1. Value of talk: amount of talk
2. Status: who initiates & directs conversation; who carries the burden of understanding
3. When intentionality begins
4. Language teaching beliefs
What is Pre-linguistic Milieu Teaching/Responsivity Education?
PMT: uses prompts, models, and natural consequences to encourage intentional communication
RT: teaches parents to promote reciprocal interactions/use linguistic mapping (expansions, extensions)
What is Focused Stimulation?
Gives child multiple exemplars of a specific language target: imitation not required
What skills must a child have to use focused stimulation?
Minimal level of social engagement
What is the hybrid approach?
Clinician selects treatment and manipulates yet follows interests of child in natural context
What are the key ideas of Hanan's It Takes Two to Talk program?
Indirect model; targets parents
Child centered, interaction promoting, language modeling
Target late talking toddlers, pre-K children with developmental or cognitive delays
What are the key ideas of Enhanced Milieu Teaching?
Teaching a sequence and what you do with a correct/incorrect response
Uses: environmental arrangement
Responsive interaction strategies
Milieu teaching procedures
What are the key features of Milieu teaching?
What is the target population for EMT?
SLI, ASD, ID, low SES, early stages of language development
>10 productive words
What are the key features of Responsive interaction strategies?
Contingent semantic feedback
Modeling language treatment
What are the assumptions of Vygotsky's Social Interactionist theory?
1) Children are active participants in their language development and is acquired because of the need to socially interact
2) Environment and caregivers are crucial for child to learn language
3) Child's cognitive development is the product of an interaction between the child's innate abilities and social experiences
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
What children can do without help to what he cannot do; incorporates scaffolding
What are the assumptions of Piaget's Cognitive theory?
Language is part of cognition and cognition is a prerequisite for language
4 stages of development
What are Piaget's 4 stages of development?
1. Sensorimotor intelligence 0-2
2. Pre-operational thought 2-7
3. Concrete operational 7-11
4. Formal operational 11-15
What is involved in sensorimotor intelligence?
What are limitations to Piaget's Cognitive theory?
Emergence of abilities can occur prior to Piaget's model
Sensorimotor schemes and symbolic schemes can develop simultaneously
What are the criteria for intellectual disability (ID)?
Intellectual functioning of IQ of 70-75 or less plus limitations in adaptive skills