-Provided an inanimate and almost limitless source of power.
-Could be used to drive any number of machines, locamotives, and ocean going ships.
-Invented by James Watt.
-Allowed increased productivity and made the Industrial Revolution possible.
Indian Cotton Textiles
-India led the world in textile production, among other things, from 750-1100CE.
-Competitive stimulation of these Indian cotton textiles was a driving factor in the British textile industry.
British Royal Society
-An association of "natural philosophers" established in 1660.
-Saw its role as one of promoting "useful knowledge"
-Established "mechanics' libraries", published brodcasts and pamplets on recent scientific advances, and held fequent public lectures and demonstrations.
-Ideas of thrift and hard work, a rigid mortality, and cleanliness characterized middle class values.
-Central value of the culture was "respectability," a term that combined the notions of social status and virtuous behavior.
-Values demontrated in "Self Help" by Scotsman Samuel Smiles.
Lower Middle Class
-Social class that developed in Britain
-Consisted of people employed in the service sector
-Clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers and the like
-Represented about 20 percent of Britain's population
-Provided new employment opportunities for women as well as men
-Means of distinguishing themselves clearly from a working class tainted by manual labor
-German by birth
-Believed that industrial capitalism was an inherently unstable system
-Doomed to collapse in a revolutionary upheaval that would give birth to a classless socialist society
-Regarded himself as a scientist
-Wrote The Communist Manifesto & Das Capital
-Argued that all historical development was driven by a class struggle between the upper class and the lower class
-Predicted that the age of industrial capitalism was the final stage of human history before the realization of socialism
-To achieve socialism he believed revolution would be needed
-British working political class
-Est. in the 1890s
-Dedicated to social reforms and a peaceful transition into socialism
-Provided a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis or Marxism
-Term used by Karl Marx
-Used to describe the industrial working class
-Originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest of the urban population
Socialism in the United States
-Minor political movement in the United States, unlike in Western Europe.
-No major socialist movement emerged to champion American workers. Not even in the Great Depression.
-Socialism only gained 6% of the vote for the presidential candidate in the 1912 election.
-People who pushed for specific reforms.
-Ex. Wages-and-hours legislation, improved sanitation standard, antitrust laws, and governmental invention in the economy.
Russian Revolution of 1905
-In 1905, the revolution forced the tsar's regime to make more reforms that it planned.
-It created a constitution, legalized both trade unions and political parties, and allowed the election of the national assembly, named the Duma.
-Censorship was eased and plans were underway for universal primary education.
-Industrial develpoment continued.
-Military strongmen in Latin America who achieved power as defenders of order and property.
-Succeeded one another with frequency.
-Came to be because of violent social reforms.
Latin American Export Boom
-Integration of the world economy resulted in a rapid growth of Latin American exports to industrializing countries that now needed the food products, raw materials, and markets of these new nations.
-Latin American landowners, buisnessmen, and governments proved eager to supply to those needs.
-The volume of Latin American goods sold abroad increased by a factor of 10.
-Began because of vast social inequalities.
-The middle-class reformers joined forces with the peasants and overthrew the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz.
-Following this revolt was a bloody conflict where one million people lost their lives.
-Peasant armies helped out Diaz in hope that they would get the land re-distributed to themselves.
-Ended in the transformation of Mexico, including the presence of their own constitution in 1917.
-A form of colonialism.
-Expressed in the power exercised by foreign investors.
-Latin Americans developed this economic growth that was largely financed by capital from abroad and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions.