Cognitive changes in Early Childhood ch.5

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Lack of Conservation

They are easily fooled by apperances.

Centration

Their thinking is narrow and single-minded: only 1 way to do things.

Intuitive Thought Substage

-Second substage of preoperational thought.
-4 to 7 years old
-Children use simple reasoning & want to know the answers to all sorts of questions
-They think they know the answers to their questions, but can't explain them

Animism

The belief that inanimate objects have life like qualities and are capable of action

Egocentrism

Inability to distinguish between one's own perspective & someone else's. ex. Father on ph ask if mom is there. Marie on ph: nods her head. Doesn't realize father can't see her.

First substage of Preoperational Thought: Symbolic Function Substage

*Ages 2-4
*child gains ability to mentally represent an object that isn't present
*Children use scribble designs to represent: people, houses, cars, clouds, etc.
*Use language more effectively/engage in pretend play
*Their thought still has limitations, two of which are: egocentrism & animism

Age Differences

*are susceptible to suggestion
*preschoolers are especially susceptible to believing false suggestions.

Short Term Memory

*Retains for 30 seconds (whatever you are paying attention too)

Memory Span

*2-3 years- they increase 2 digits
*7 year- increase 5 digits
*7 -13 years - only increase by 1 1/2 digits.

Long Term Memory Criteria

*Age differences
*Differences to Susceptibility
*Interviewing techniques

Attention

Focusing our mental resources on selected info

Types of attention

*Sustained Attention
* Executive Attention

Problems with young children's attention

*They lack planning in problem solving
*They focus most often from SALIENT info rather RELEVANT info

Executive Attention

Processes related to goal oriented behavior

Sustained Attention

Keeping one's focus on a task

Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)

Child is learning to make simple decisions, appropriate decisions, lead to sense of initiative. Poor decisions lead to sense of guilt.

Emotions

During early childhood self-conscious _______develop, pride, shame, embarrassment and guilt.
*2-3 years- increasing use of emotion
*4-5 years- greater emotional standing, such as different people having different emotions

Regulating Emotion

Monitor emotions of children, use emotions to teach, teach children how to deal w/ negative emotions.

Emotion-Dismissing Parents

To ignore or deny their children emotions

Physical Abuse

When parents physically injury children during punishment

Child Neglect

Failure to provide for children's basic needs

Sexual Abuse

Using children sexually

Emotional Abuse

Yelling at them & putting them down

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