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Cold packs

vinyl casing filled with silica gel or sand-slurry mixture

Cold packs method of heat transmission

Conduction

Cold packs treatment temperature

0°F-10°F.

Cold packs time

10-20 minutes.

Ice packs method of heat transmission

Conduction

Ice massage

ice cylinder

Ice packs time

10-20 minutes

ice packs

crushed ice folded in moist towel

Ice massage method of heat transmission

Conduction

Ice massage time

5-10 minutes

Ice towels

towels soaked in ice slush

Ice towels method of heat transmission

Conduction

Ice towels time

10-15 minutes

Vapocoolant spray

nonflammable volatile liquid evaporates when sprayed on skin

Vapocoolant spray time

10-15 minutes

Vapocoolant spray method of heat transmission

Evaporation

Contrast baths.

alternating immersion of a body part in warm and cold water

Contrast baths time

20-30 minutes

Contrast baths method of heat transmission

Conduction

contrast bath treatment temperature

Hot water - 100°F - 110°F / 37.7 - 43.3°C
Cold water - 55°F - 65°F / 12.7 - 18.3°C

hunting reaction

cyclic vasoconstriction and vasodilation following prolonged cold exposure

cardiac output

increases

metabolic rate

decreases

pulse rate

decreases

respiratory rate

decreases

vasodilation

decreases

blood pressure

arterial increases
venous decreases

blood to internal organs

increases

stroke volume

increases

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