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1. All molecules are composed of:

- Atoms

2. All organisms contain the following elements:

- Nitrogen
- Oxygen
- Carbon
- Hydrogen

3. The strongest chemical bonds are:

- Covalent Bonds

4. Non-polar molecules:

- Hydrophobic

5. All organic molecules contain _____ atoms.

- Carbon

6. The many small steps involved in biological reactions allows:

- Each step requires an enzyme.
- Biological reactions would occur too slowly without enzymes.

7. When many identical or similar sugar monomers are linked:

- A type of polymer called carbohydrates are formed. They can be used for structural, energy, or storage purposes.

8. Molecules built from amino acids are known as:

- Proteins

1. What is produced when there is not enough oxygen for respiration?

- Glycolysis takes an alternate pathway.
- Body produces lactic acid after glycolysis.
* Note: ATP is only produced when there is oxygen present
Produces Lactic Acid

2. The complete breakdown of glucose during respiration leaves us with what molecules?

- Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
- Water (H2O)

3. The overall efficiency of the process of respiration is approximately:

- 40%

4. An important contribution to digestion made by chewing food is to:

- Increase Surface Area
- Enzymes break down carbohydrates

5. Glycolysis takes place in the:

- Cytoplasm

6. The two primary systems of the Carbon Cycle are:

- Photosynthesis
- Respiration

7. Electron acceptors include:

- Oxygen (O2)
- Hydrogen (H)

8. Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle are involved in:

- The Process of Respiration

1. Photosynthesis is comprised of _____&_____ reactions.

- Light & Dark Reactions

2. In what part of the leaf does photosynthesis occur?

- Mesophyll

3. CO2 enters leaves through pores called:

- Stomata

4. Sugars are produced in plants by combining____from the air &____from the soil.

- CO2
- H2O

5. Why is green the least effective color for photosynthesis?

- Because plants do not use the green wavelength of the visible spectrum of light, therefore it's reflective.

6. The energy that pulls water up the plant in water transportation is:

- Transpiration

7. The oxygen in the atmosphere originally came from_____?

- Photosynthesis
- Photolysis
- Tiny organisms

8. The original source of the energy to make sugars in plants comes from:

- The Sun

1. Which biological control system evolved after pheromones:

- Hormones

2. The regulation of the internal environment different from the external environment is known as____.

- Homeostasis

3. Hormones are:

- Chemical messengers produced in one part of the body with action in another.
- Found in plants & animals
- Causes stimulation/inhibition

4. The specific amounts of an hormone produced is determined by_______.

- The endocrine system (feedback control)

5. Nerve signals travel across a synapse between neurons as:

- Neural Connections
* Signal carried across synapse as a chemical messenger.

6. A bundle of axons is called:

- Nerves (Discrete units)

7. Integration in a nerve is achieved by connections that are arranged so that:

- Summation (Integration)
* Spatial & temporal
- Neural-Level Integration
* Sharpens edges
* Detects movement
* Recognizes objects

8. Which of the following is a homeostasis control system in animals?

- Animals have two systems to maintain body's environment:
* Nervous system - rapid
* Hormone system - gradual,but long lasting effect

1. Phagocytosis involves:

- White blood cells "eating up" damaged and invading cells
- Aggregate in large numbers. Form "pus".
- Problem: self recognition.

2. ___ are proteins produced by the immune system.

- Antibodies

3. Vaccines contain a harmless ___ which stimulates the body to produce ___.

- Antigen
- Antibodies

4. Viruses are removed by ____.

- Natural Killer Cells (NKC)
* Do not attack invading cells.
* Attack virus infected cells, cancerous cells and cells without proper recognition sites.
* Granules of NKC cause membrane damage to cell upon contact.

5. A second exposure to a foreign invader will produce a ___ response.

- Faster

6. The HIV virus infects & destroys ___ cells.

- HIV (Virus) attacks T-Cells (Thymus):
* Weakens or eliminates immune system.
* Leaving you susceptible to many diseases.

7. Autoimmune diseases are caused by:

- Anti-self cells attacking body's own healthy cells

8. The first vaccine was for the treatment of:

- Smallpox

1. The cell cycle results in:

- Cell Cycle
* Stages in the division and growth of a cell to form two identical cells.
- "Endless" process.
* Growth.
* Chromosome & organelle replication.
* Nucleus & cytoplasm division.
- If stopped → cell death.
- Almost all cells.
* Except nerve, skeletal muscle in adult animals. Numbers stay the same.

2. How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?

- What occurs when cell cycle gets out of control.
* Cells divides continuous.
* Normal cells divide 20-50 times.

3. A typical cell cycle in humans takes place in about:

- 18 1/2 to 24 3/4 hr

4. Homologous chromosomes are:

- Each pair (except last) are similar in length.
* Each pair are homologous chromosomes.
* Each pair has one chromosome from mom and other from dad.
* Held together by centromeres.

5. Human sperm & eggs have ___ the amount of genetic material as you.

- Half

6. The process of meiosis results in:

- Meiosis. <--- Nice Answer.
* One nucleus divides and becomes four nuclei. (Four haploid (1N) cells)
* Genetically different.

7. Two ways genetic variation is produced during meiosis:

- Diploid (2N): Includes both set of homologous chromosomes. Before meiosis.
- Haploid (1N): One set of homologous chromosomes. After meiosis.

8. The diploid part of the human life cycle is called:

- First Meiotic Division
* When fertilization occurs: fusion of two haploid cells,e.g. egg and sperm, will form one diploid cell.

1. Spermists differed from Ovists in their view of heredity by:

- Two theories in 16th and 17th Century:
* Ovists: Baby preformed in egg. Father's sperm"awakened" baby.
* Spermists: Baby preformed in sperm (=humunculus) and deposited in mother's egg where it grew to term.

2. What advantages did Mendel see in using peas for his studies?

- Many varieties available.
- Peas breed true: Easy to control pollination and hybridization.
- "Either - Or" character.

3. The initial reaction of the scientific community to Mendel's paper was:

- Not accepted in his lifetime.
- Pangenesis was favored.
- In 1900 his paper was rediscovered and translated.
- Important in understanding mechanism for evolution proposed by Darwin.

4. Mendel's three laws or principles included:

- Dominance
- Segregation
- Independent assortment

5. Which of the following didn't Mendel know about when he studied peas?

- Chromosomes
- Homologous pairs
- Alleles are alternative versions of a gene
- Meiosis

6. When two alleles for the same trait differ one is ____ & the other _____.

- Dominant
- Recessive

7. ____ is the reason that all recessive alleles don't disappear.

- Hardy-Weinberg Law.
* If Natural Selection is not involved.

8. Traits like flower color are called ____ while the genetic makeup is called ____.

- Phenotype
- Genotype

1. Alleles are:

- Alternative traits (tall vs short).

2. The phenotype of an organism is:

- Phenotype are visible traits
* Eye Color
* Hairy chest
* Determined by environment, genetics or both.

3. A Punnett Square is:

- A table/chart showing:
* Different combination of crosses/probabilities
* Different genotypes!

4. If a husband and wife are heterozygous for polydactyl, the probability is that:

- Polydactyl: 3/4 offspring
- Normal: 1/4 offspring
* Ratio: 3:1

5. The study of factors affecting gene & genotype frequencies in populations is the field of:

- Population genetics

6. Incomplete dominance is the term for:

- Traits

7. Determination of eye color is:

- Genes
* Based on gene sequences.

8. A person with homologous sex chromosomes that are XY and has the outward appearance of a woman is said to be:

- CAIS, XY
* A person who has CAIS (Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome). This person is sterile, having no uterus and undescended gonads, as well as no body or facial hair. In addition, they are taller than average.

1. Before 1950 scientists thought that genetic information was stored as:

- Proteins.

2. The principle that genetic information is contained in linear sequences of nucleic acid bases is known as:

- DNA
* Principle of Colinearity
- States the Obvious:
* We can express composition of DNA as linear sequence of nucleotides,i.e. GATCTTC......:
* Same linear sequence is maintained when mRNA copies it for protein synthesis.
* Nucleotide sequence determine order of amino acids that make up different proteins.
* Great deal of heredity is expressed as proteins.
* Colinear literally means same order!

3. Genetic information is expressed by the biosynthesis of:

- Translation of mRNA.
* Synthesis of protein.
- Genetic information is stored in the DNA.

4. The 1962 Nobel Prize went to ________ for the discovery of the structure of DNA.

- Watson, Crick, & Wilkins.
* Franklin was excluded.

5. How many different nucleotide bases are there in human?

- 4 (Thymine, Adenine, Cytocine, & Guanine).

6. What is the shape of a DNA molecule?

- Double helix

7. Errors during the process of replication can be:

- Accuracy of replication:
* In Bacteria, 1 error in 1 billion bases.
* 1 error in 100 replication.
- Central Dogma of DNA:
* Transcription of DNA.
- Segment of DNA unwinds.
* Sequence of unwound DNA copied.
* Copy of sequence is mRNA.
* Sequence is used to make protein.

8. Huntington's Disease is:

- Hereditary, degenerative brain disorder.
- Caused by a dominant gene.
- Symptoms appear gradually. Diminishes person's ability to:
* Walk, think, talk and reason.
* Typically begins at mid-life, 35-40.
* Death usually follows due to complications, such as choking, heart failure or infections.
* No Treatment or cure!

1. During the process of transcription ____ is transcribed from ____.

- mRNA
- DNA

* Transcription of DNA to make mRNA

2. How does RNA differ from DNA?

- Differs in several ways. Sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose.
- Thymine base is absent. In its place is uracil (U), another nitrogenous base.
- RNA has a single strand rather than a double strand (like DNA)

3. Amino acids are transferred by ___ to ribosomes to form ____.

- Nucleotides
- Anticodons

4. The genetic code is formed by three adjacent bases, in mRNA called:

- Codon.

5. The 3 base units on tRNA are called:

- Anticodon.

6. How long does it take to make a typical protein?

- 60 nucleotide per sec: takes 20 sec for average protein

7. The disease called "sickle-cell anemia" is the result of:

- Errors in protein, which comes from a single base change.

8. mRNA is edited to remove non-coding sections called:

- Introns

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