Alexis de Tocwueville
one of the first great social theorist. From FRANCe, visited to U.S. to understand how the conditions of democracy and equality were possible. "Democracy in America" (1835)
another great theorist, looked at way in which the world had been chaning due to the influences of massve large-scale organizational societ and larfe bureaucrtive organizations has transformed social life.
Auguste Comte (1798-1957)
French Philosopher. Invented word"sociology" to describe the subject he wished to establish. Beleive scientific method could be used to study human behavior and society and thus produce knowledhe of sociey based on scientific evidence. Wanted it to be modeled after physics, and should contribut to thte weldare of humanity by using science to predict and control human behavior.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
drew on Auguste Comte but thought it was to vauge and failed to establish it on scientific basis. To have scientific basis it needed to develope methodological principles to guide research. SOCIAL FACTS, ORGANIC SOLIDARITY, SOCIAL CONSTRAINT, DIVISION OF LABOR, ANOMIE
aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals (ex: economy, social constraint, or religion)
social cohesion that results from the various parts of a society functioning as an integrated whole. Society can only exist if consensus is found among members over basic values and customs
It is a property of Social facts. conditioning influence on our behavior of the groups and societies of which we are memerbers.
Division of Labor
specialization of work. All societies have at least some rudimentary form of division of labor, especially between males and females. With the development of industrialism this became more complex and became the driving force of social cohesion and organix solidarity, replacing religion.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German. contrasted sharply with those of Comte and Durkheim. but also wanted to explain social change brought on by industrial revolution. View point focused on MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. believed that the most important changes are because of the development of capitalism, where owners of capital form the ruling class, thus CAPITALISM is a class system in which conflict is inevitable b/c ruling class wanted to exploit working class.
Materialist conception of history
it was not the ideas of values human beings hold that are the main source of social change, as Durkheim claimed. Rather social change is prompted primarily by economic influences. Historical developement was based on class conflict (rich vs. poor)
economic system based on private ownership of weatlh, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.
German, much of his work also treated the development of modern capitalism. He rejected materialist conception of history and saw less significance in class conflict. Rather ideas/values where equal to economic factors. Made large contribution to study of religion. Believed many aspects of christianity contributed to rise of capitalism. He studied BUREAUCRARY. Thought sociology was less of a sciene
large organization that is divided into jobs based on specific functiona nd staffed by officials ranked according to a hierarchy. It involves rule of exports, who make decisions w/out consulting those whose lives will be effected. Doesnt' allow for sucessful democrary in modern society.
means the organization of social, economic, and culturallife according to principles of efficiency, on hte basis of techincal knowledge.
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
credited with taking sociology to England. significant because of her methodological insight, 1: argued one studies a society only by focusing on all aspects (politics, religioni, social institutions) 2: analysis of society must include all of it's members. 3: was 1st to focus on previously ignored issues and instituaitons (marriage, children, religous life, race relations) and like COMTE said sociologist must do more then observe they must act to benefit society.
W.E.B. Du Bios (1868-1963)
1st african american to earn doctorate at Harvard University. Most important contribution to sociology is concept of DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS, said ones sense of self and identity was greatly influenced by historical experiences and social circumstance. Said sociology must explain the contact of diverse races of men. connected social analysis to social reform. founded NAACP
a way of talking about identity throught the lens of the experience of African Americans.