What is memory?
The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.
What are the different kinds of memory?
Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
What is sensory memory?
The first place where information is stored.
How many chunks of information can be held in the sensory memory?
How long is information stored in short term memory?
How are memories transferred into long term storage?
What are the 2 types of declarative memory?
semantic and episodic.
What is semantic memory?
Memory for knowledge and facts.
What is episodic memory?
Memory for personal experiences.
What is the tip-of-the-toungue phenomenon?
The temporary inability to remember information that one is certain one knows.
What are retrieval cues?
A major strategy for recalling information successfully.
What does the levels-of-processing approach to memory suggest?
That the way in which information is initially perceived and analyzed determins the success with which it is recalled. The deeper the initial processing, the greater the recall.
What is explicit memory?
Refers to intentional or conscious recollection of information.
What is implicit memory?
Refers to memories of which people are not conciously aware but that can affect subsequent performance and behavior.
What are flashbulb memories?
Memories centered on a specific important event. The more distinctive a memory is, the more easily it can be retrieved.
What are schemas?
Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled.
What is autobiographical memory influenced by?
What is recall?
The process of retrieving a specific item from memory.
Why do we forget information?
Several processes account for memory failure, including decay, interference, and cue-dependent forgetting.
The term used to define memory loss due to nonuse.
What is interference?
Difficulty in accessing a memory because of the presence of other information.
When does retroactive interference occur?
When material is difficult to retrieve because of subsequent exposure to other material.
What does proactive interference refer to?
The difficulty in retrieving material as a result of the interference of previously learned material.