a well-mixed mixture that contains a solvent and at least one solute
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, substances tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are high concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
characteristic of a cell membrane which allows some molecules to pass through but not others
diffusion of water
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Hypertonic Solution: Plant Cell
cellophane or processed cellulose has pores that tets water and other small molecules through and large molecules of starch and sugar can get through. i.e an artificial semi permeable membrane
Hypertonic Solution: Animal Cell
Hypotonic Solution: Plant Cell
Due to the cell wall, plant cells are relatively okay in this state.
Hypotonic Solution: Animal Cell
if minor - just swelled... but lysis is a big risk!
cytoplasm shrinks and membrane pulls away from cell wall when water leaves the cell (hypertonic solution and plant cell)
Animal Cell Tonicity
Plant Cell Tonicity
Hypertonic Red Blood Cells
Normal (isotonic) on left; shriveled on right (water leaves the cell)
Isotonic Plant Cells
Isotonic Red Blood Cells
Microscope: Hypertonic Red Blood Cells
Unhappy Red Blood Cells
Difficult to see fragments of cells (especially studied with red blood cells) that appear under a microscope if they have lysed from being in a hypotonic solution. The shell/floppy membrane is flat and hard to see.
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes.
a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3008/3122920217_9c84c8717a.jpg
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
the process where substances move across a plasma membrane, due to their own kinetic energy, down a concentration gradient or pressure gradient, diffusion osmosis
An organelle often found in protozoa that pumps excess water out of the cell to keep the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment (like freshwater).
suffering from excessive loss of water from the body,
food preservation techniques
Pickling - acid &/or salt
Pasteurization - heat to kill pathogens
Canning - kill spores and pathogens
Modified Atmosphere Packaging - remove oxygen to delay decay
Formed when water and dissolved substances diffuse from the blood and stream into intercellular spaces and their surrounding tissues
electrolyte content close to body fluids and used as replacement and correction of electrolyte imbalance.
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.