TSU ENG 2330 Labay Exam 3

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Early Middle Ages

5th Century - 1066 A.D.
• setting of Beowulf, Tristan and Isolde, and Sir Gawain
• Dates from the end of the Roman Empire.
• Characterized by the rise of many smaller kingdoms in the absence of Roman power.

High Middle Ages

1066-1300 A.D.
• period of the troubadour poets of courtly love and the genre of the metrical (poetic) Romance; Tristan and Isolde stories abound as well as stories of Arthur and his knights, especially his champion, Gawain.
• Fewer barbarian invasions during this period; Europe is more politically organized.
• Rise of chivalry and courtly love.

Late Middle Ages

1300-1500 A.D.
• period in which Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is written; also the period of Chaucer
• Period of great change in Europe.
• Increased exploration.
• Increased exposure to Classical texts.

Empire of Alexander the Great

334-323 B.C. - Died in 323 B.C. on his return to Babylon

Some Concepts from One Thousand One Nights

• Fate/Destiny is beyond our understanding.
• Life is full of twists and turns.
• Sometimes bad things happen to good people and vice versa; God rewards whomever he wishes to.
• One must trust in the will of the one God, Allah.
• God is all powerful and controls the future.
• Allah's Khalifah is the spiritual/temporal ruler and must be obeyed, even when wrong?
• One must be true to one's word/vow.
• A woman can be smart and moral and trusted.

Some Concepts from One Thousand One Nights cnt'd

• Fate/Destiny is beyond our understanding.
• Life is full of twists and turns.
• Sometimes bad things happen to good people and vice versa; God rewards whomever he wishes to.
• One must trust in the will of the one God, Allah.
• God is all powerful and controls the future.
• Allah's Khalifah is the spiritual/temporal ruler and must be obeyed, even when wrong?
• One must be true to one's word/vow.
• A woman can be smart and moral and trusted.

Bildungsroman

A novel or story whose theme is the moral or psychological growth of the main character.

Frame Tale

A narrative technique in which the main story is composed primarily for the purpose of organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story. Examples include Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights.

Quest Narrative

A story in which the central character is searching for something

Satire

A form of social and political commentary.
Uses irony.
Sir Gawain . . . Is a medieval example.

Allegory

• A form of literature in which many aspects of the story have multiple layers of meaning.
• Uses symbolism as a primary tool.
• Note: A "Christian allegory" contains multiple symbols that have religious significance related to the Christian faith traditions.

Old Heroic Values

• Protection of family and clan
• Loyalty to leader
• Skill with weapons, strength, courage in battle
• Skill in horsemanship
• Enthusiasm for hunting, raiding, feasting, drinking
• "Freemen" in loosely knit political alliances

Romanized Celts

• Celtic peoples living in Britain who were influenced culturally by the Romans; included the legendary Arthur.
• Were conquered after the Roman withdrawal from Britain by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians.

Anglo-Saxons

• Teutonic/Germanic people who conquered England after the Romans withdrew in the 5th Century AD.
• Ruled the land until the Norman Conquest in 1066 AD.

Normans

• Inhabitants of Normandy (northern France) who conquered England in 1066 AD.
• Were originally a Viking people who conquered Normandy in earlier centuries.

William the Conqueror

• Lived from 1027-1087
• Led the Normans at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
• Afterwards became King of England.

Norman England

• England under Norman rule after the Battle of Hastings.
• French was the official language of government.
• Much culture transmitted from France at this time.

New Courtly Values (High/Late MA)

• Aristocratic in focus—centered on court life and based on the French feudal system of politics
• Catholic/Christian in theology
• Gallant
• Courteous
• Refined
• Educated
• Chivalric

Romance Genre

• The Matter of Britain
• Ancient Troy
• Stories of Tristan & Isolde
• Courtly Love and Adultery
• Stories of Gawain and Arthur

Love Poems

• Troubadours/Trobairitz - poets from southern France; 11th & 12th century.
• More than 700 named poets, including Bernart deVentadorn and Beatriz, Comtessa de Dia
• More than 500 long poems about courtly love.

Chanson de geste (songs of deeds/courage; epic)

Focus: Ancient Germanic heroes/Charlemagne
• Beowulf (c. 1000 A.D.focusing on c. 400-600;) an epic of England's past
• The Song of Roland (c. 1100 A.D. focusing on c.778) an epic of France's past
• El Cid (c. 1200 A.D. on c. 1080-1090) an epic of Spain/Iberia's past

"The matter of Britain"

• Stories of King Mark, Tristan, & Isolde/Isolt/Yseult (setting c. 5th -6th century A.D.)
• Stories of Arthur (setting c. 5th -6th century)
• Stories of Sir Gawain (Arthur's nephew)
• Stories of Arthur and Gawain, etc.
• Stories of Arthur's knights

Sir Gawain & the Green Knight Info

• Late Middle Ages (same time as Chaucer)
• Gawain Poet/Pearl Poet
• West Midlands dialect
• Old Poetic Style in "New" Romance Form
• Alliterative rather than rhyming
• Focused on courtly love and court conduct
• Echoes from The Odyssey
• Translation by J.R.R. Tolkein

Who is Gawain?

The story's protagonist, Arthur's nephew and one of his most loyal knights. Although he modestly disclaims it, Gawain has the reputation of being a great knight and courtly lover. He prides himself on his observance of the five points of chivalry in every aspect of his life. Gawain is a pinnacle of humility, piety, integrity, loyalty, and honesty. His only flaw proves to be that he loves his own life so much that he will lie in order to protect himself. Gawain leaves the Green Chapel penitent and changed.

Who is the Green Knight if symbolic?

A mysterious visitor to Camelot. The Green Knight's huge stature, wild appearance, and green complexion set him apart from the beardless knights and beautiful ladies of Arthur's Camelot. He is an ambiguous figure: he says that he comes in friendship, not wanting to fight, but the friendly game he proposes is quite deadly. He attaches great importance to verbal contracts, expecting Sir Gawain to go to great lengths to hold up his end of their bargain. The Green Knight shows himself to be a supernatural being when he picks up his own severed head and rides out of Arthur's court, still speaking. At the same time, he seems to symbolize the natural world, in that he is killed and reborn as part of a cycle. At the poem's end, we discover that the Green Knight is also Bertilak, Gawain's host, and one of Morgan le Faye's minions.

Who is the Green Knight's Lady?

Bertilak's wife attempts to seduce Gawain on a daily basis during his stay at the castle. Though the poem presents her to the reader as no more than a beautiful young woman, Bertilak's wife is an amazingly clever debater and an astute reader of Gawain's responses as she argues her way through three attempted seductions. Flirtatious and intelligent, Bertilak's wife ultimately turns out to be another pawn in Morgan le Faye's plot.

Who is the lady in black?

The Arthurian tradition typically portrays Morgan as a powerful sorceress, trained by Merlin, as well as the half sister of King Arthur. Not until the last one hundred lines do we discover that the old woman at the castle is Morgan le Faye and that she has controlled the poem's entire action from beginning to end. As she often does in Arthurian literature, Morgan appears as an enemy of Camelot, one who aims to cause as much trouble for her half brother and his followers as she can.

Who is Arthur and what does the court symbolize?

The king of Camelot. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Arthur is young and beardless, and his court is in its golden age. Arthur's refusal to eat until he hears a fantastic tale shows the petulance of youth, as does Arthur's initial stunned response to the Green Knight's challenge. However, like a good king, Arthur soon steps forward to take on the challenge. At the story's end, Arthur joins his nephew in wearing a green girdle on his arm, showing that Gawain's trial has taught him about his own fallibility.

Marie de France

12th & 13th century. Lais. Chevrefoil, Bisclavret, Eliduc, and others.

Ibn Dawud

Wrote in Arabic, The Book of The Flower and its "model" for love lyrics and love theory

Gottfried von Strassburg

the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, which is regarded, alongside Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Nibelungenlied, as one of the great narrative masterpieces of the German Middle Ages.

Bernart de Ventadorn

- Fl. 1150-1180
"When I see the skylark moving" is the most celebrated lyric of the most celebrated troubadour, about whom we know many legends but no facts, although he probably belonged to the court of Eleanor of Aquitaine. These legends and the forty five odd songs that accompany them epitomize Occitan fin' amor. Here, Bernart's words and music use the lark and its song to dramatize soaring hope and bottomless despair as conditions experienced both physically and spiritually, reveling in the sorrowful plight of the lover spurned by his powerful lady.

Beatriz Comtessa de Dia

To sing of what I would not want I must and I have been in great distress , the most famous of a small group of trobairitz, or female troubadours who wrote courtly songs of love during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

The Gawain/Pearl Poet

• Name given to the person who wrote sir gawin and the green knight. Was orgianlly found with a group of 3 poems. One of these poems were called the pearl which was most loved by the people.

The Lais

Chevrefoil (The Honeysuckle) and Bisclavret (The Werewolf) Author: Marie de France

The Tale of the Ox and the Donkey

Donkey tells Ox to act sick, Donkey then has to work for Ox, Donkey tells the Ox to act well or he will be slaughtered for being useless

The Tale of the Merchant and His Wife

The Merchent hears the dog and rooster talking and the rooster tells the dog that the Merchant does not know how to manage his wife, the merchant then beats his wife into submission and she no longer badgers him for his secret would would have resulted in his death to reveal.

The Tale of the Porter and the Young Girls

Three wealthy and beautiful sisters invite, over the course of an evening, a porter, three one-eyed Kalandars, and three merchants—who turn out to be the Caliph and his companions in disguise—into their home for shelter, food, and drink. Upon entering each guest must take the following oath: ''Whoso speaketh of what concerneth him not shall hear what pleaseth him not!''

The Tale of the Second Kalandar

Jinn battle story

The Tale of Zubaidah

Zubaidah is The First of the Girls

The First of the Girls

Zubaidah is The First of the Girls

The End of Jafar and the Barmakids (from lecture and storyteller)

In the story of the end of Jafar and the Barmakids, Shahrazad claims that Haroun al-Rashid forces his vizier Jafar to marry his sisterso he can sleep with both of them at the same time. He forbids them from seeing each other outside of his presence, but eventually the two give in to temptation, which could possibly be the reason that Haroun has Jafar executed.

Sympathy the Learned

(1001 nights) a women outsmarts all the intellectual men to help "her" man.

the frame-tale of King Shahrayar and Shahrazad

The frame-tale that sets the One Thousand and One Nights

The Tale of the Ruined Man

A man in Baghdad has a dream about becoming rich again, travels to Egypt, is thrown in jail, talks so the sheriff about the dream, the sheriff laughs at him tells the man he had a similar dream about going to an empty courtyard and finding riches, the sheriff thinks the rich man is a fool and releases him. The rich man hurry's home to his courtyard and finds the riches.

The Story of Attaf

Harun al-Rashid consults his library (the House of Wisdom), reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier" Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight. Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus, involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries." After returning to Baghdad, Ja'afar reads the same book that caused Harun to laugh and weep, and discovers that it describes his own adventures with Attaf.

Aristocratic Literature

literature dealing with the ruling class.

Old heroic values

Early Middle Ages, Protection of family and clan, Loyalty to leader, skill with weapons, strength, courage in battle, skill in horsemanship, enthusiasm for hunting, raiding, feasting, drinking, "Freemen" in loosely knit political alliances

Courtly values

• Aristocratic in focus—centered on court life and based on the French feudal system of politics
• Catholic/Christian in theology
• Gallant
• Courteous
• Refined
• Educated
• Chivalric
• Happening during high and late middle ages

Troubadours/Trobairitz/Trouver

Troubadours/Trobairitz - traveling performers from southern France; 11th & 12th century. More than 700 named poets. More than 500 long poems about courtly love. Beatriz Comtessa de Dia; Bernart de Ventadorn.

The "matter of Britain"

literature and legendary material associated with great Britain. King Arthur related. french

Chivalric code of knightly conduct

The "Knightly" virtues:
- Free-giving
- Friendly
- Chaste
- Chivalrous
- Pious

Didactic verse

an artistic philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art; Writing that is "preachy" or seeks overtly to convince a reader of a particular point or lesson; writing that aims to teach

Misogynistic themes

hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women

Satire

form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly

Vernacular literature

LIterature not in Latin, used to make statements. Authors became critical of society and its values, and used their vernacular writing to express this.

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