The Easter Rising, 1916

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What were the 5 main causes of the Easter Rising?

1) Revival of the IRB
2) Carsonism
3) War and it's consequences - IVF split, disillusionment, coalition
4)New Nationalism
5) Pearse and Connoly

When was a rising initially planned for?

August 1915

Why was a rising in August 1914 not feasible?

unavailability of German help

Who were the two main militant separatists who led the Rising?

Clarke and McDermott

Who were the leaders of the Irish Volunteers who were kept in the dark regarding any plans for rising?

MacNeill, Hobson and O'Rahilly
(Hobson was kidnapped when he found out about the insurrection and O'Rahilly later took part)

How many members did the IRB have in 1914

1600

What THREE organisations did the IRB set about infiltrating?

1) Irish Volunteers - 1913
2) Gaelic League - 1893
3) GAA

What was the Fenian maxim by which the IRB separitists were spurred on by?

England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity

What did Connoly and Pearse believe would be achieved, even if the rising failed?

The rising would "reawaken the soul of the nation"

What does Rees comment about Carson?

Carson brought the gun back into Irish Politics

What does Laffan comment about Carson?

Carson rekindled the Fenian flame

What did the rising war death-toll lead to?

disillusionment with constitutional nationalism

The IRB military council was established

May 1915

Who were the initial members of the IRB military Council? (3)

Pearse, Plunkett and Ceannt

How did the Military Council ensure total secrecy

they only liasoned with Clarke and McDermott

What does REES say about the IRB military council?

The formation of the military council was the single most important factor in the planning of the Easter Rising

Who, apart from REES, also highlights the importance of the IRB military council?

Kee

What strategy did 'Carsonism' follow?

an extra-parliamentary strategy - violence

Who highlights Carsonism as a major cause of the Rising?

Martin

What did war provide?

unique conditions for the rising to take place during

What does JACKSON comment about the war?

a revolution would have been virtually impossible without war

What does REES say about the Gaelic League?

"It was the Gaelic League... that brought a new generation of young men to nationalism"

Who is closely associated with the 'Gaelic Revival'?

W.B. Yeats

The position of Clarke and McDermott, even within the IRB, can be referred to as...

a minority within a minority

Who went to Germany to negotiate arms for the rising?

Plunkett and Casement

When was conscription introduced into Britain?

January 1916

What was the name of the vessel upon which the arms were brought from Germany to Ireland?

Aud

How many rifles did the Aud carry?

20000

What date was the Easter Rising planned for?

Sunday 23 April 1916

When was the Aud intercepted?

21 April 1916

What was the duration of the rising?

24-29 April 1916

How many men took part in the Rising on the Monday 24th?

less than 1600

What were the (6) key positions taken by the rebels?

1) The General Post Office
2)The Four Courts
3) St Stephen's Green
4) Jacob's Biscuit Factory
5) Boland's Bakery
6) South Dublin Union

Who of the memvers served at the GPO? (5)

1)Pearse
2)Connoly
3)Clarke
4)McDermott
5)Plunkett

How many people were killed/ injured in total?

450/ 2500

What key position did they fail to sieze?

Dublin Castle

How many civilians are said to have been killed?

250

Who is the most infamous of these citizens?

Sheehy Skeffington

Who were the (7) signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?

1) Clarke
2) MacDermott
3) Pearse
4) Ceannt
5) Plunkett
6) Connolly
7) MacDonagh

How many times does the Proclamation mention 'republic'?

5

Who read out the Proclamation and where?

Pearse, in front of the GPO

What was a key idea which was held by Pearse which spurred on the rising?

Blood Sacrifice

Why can the importance of 'blood-sacrifice' be easily overstated in motivations?

Pearse was not the leader of the rising. Clarke and McDermott were, and blood sacrifice was not their primary strategy but rather an improvised tactic

What evidence shows that blood sacrifice was not a key factor in the military council's plans? (2)

1) The scale of operations
2) The substantial German help

What did Pearse write about 'Bloodshed' in 1913

Bloodshed is a cleaning and sanctifying thing

What did Pearse believe must happen in Ireland to reawaken the country?

the old heart of the earth needed to be warmed by the red wine of the battlefield

From whom did Pearse get a lot of insporation?

Wolfe Tone

What was the opinion of unionists in regards to the Rising?

It was treachery and proof that Irish nationalists were at heart disloyal

What changed the tide of public opinion following the rising?

executions and killings of civilians

How many leaders were executed?

15

On what date was the first execution and who (3) was executed?

3 May 1916, Pearse, Clarke and McDonagh

Who was executed on 4th May?

Plunkett, Edward, Daly, W.Pearse and O'Hanrahan

What was the date of the LAST execution and who (2) was executed?

12 May 1916, Connolly and MacDermott

On what date did Dillon make his outburst in the house of commons?

11 May 1916

What was the most prominent phrase in Dillon's outburst on 11th May?

"Our party has been regarded as traitors... and you are not washing away our whole life's work in a sea of blood"

When did General Sir John Maxwell land in Dublin?

28 April 1916

What was Sir John Maxwell's first action upon arriving in Dulbin?

introduced marshall law

How many were tried?

120 men and 1 woman

How many were sentenced to death?

90

What does Lady Fingall say about the executions?

she describes it as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"

Who described the executions as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"

Lady Fingall

What does George Bernard Shaw comment about the government's actions?

they were "canonising their prisoners"

What date was Sheehy-Skeffington arrested and shot without trial?

26 April 1916

Where were many nationalist prisoners interned to?

Frongoch

How many people were interned to Frongoch Prison?

1867

What is it recorded that Connolly said to one of his men before starting the rising?

"we're going to be slaughtered"

Why is it hard to asses whether or not the rising was a success of failure?

The rising was never supposed to be a success, the leaders of it knew that upon initiating it.

For what reasons could the rising be considered a failure? (3)

1) German arms never arrived in Ireland
2) Risings in other parts of Ireland failed to materialise
3) Only 6 positions taken by rebels

What was an important result of the Easter Rising in regards to politics?

the fall of constitutional nationalism

What does Martin call the rising, and why?

A Rising of Intellectuals, because 3/7 signatories were poets and Connolly was a Marxist intellectual

Who refers to the rising as a "Rising of Intellectuals"?

Martin

The National Magazine (America) said what about the reaction to the rising?

"For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today"

From where was the quote "For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today" printed?

The American National Magazine

What does WALL say about the rising?

The rising was as much a revolt against the IPP as British Rule in Ireland

Who claims that The rising was as much a revolt against the IPP as British Rule in Ireland?

Wall

Why does Redmond not take a significant role during the aftermath of the rising, but Dillon?

Redmond was not in Ireland when the rising happened

What has the Rising been described as (in terms of general historical relevance)?

"one of the most interesting examples in all history of the triumph of failure"

What phrase is used by Yeats in his poem "Easter, 1916" to describe the events?

"A terrible beauty is born"

What was the primary objective of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?

To declare that an Irish Republic had been established and that a provisional government had been appointed

Where did the executions take place?

Kilmainham Gaol

What does LYONS say about the Irish Volunteers?

they "provided the physical force with the lever they were seeking"

When was the Gaelic League established?

1893

Who were the two main leaders of the Gaelic League?

Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill

MY OWN ASSESMENT OF GL

The Gaelic league was the essential ideological component behind the militant force of the IRB and Irish Volunteers.

What (in the words of sample essay) was inspired by the rising?

a "national renaissance of Ireland"

What does WILLIAMS say about the Gaelic League?

it was the greatest single force in "propagating the separatist ideal" among Irishmen

What did 'Carsonism' encourage? (2)

the IRB revival and the formation of the IVF in November 1913

What did 'new nationalism' provide? (2)

The revolutionary Elite
A reawakened sense of Irish nationalism

When did Plunkett and Casement finally secure an arms deal with Germany for the rising?

March 1916

How many were members of Connolly's Irish Citizen Army?

no more than 200

What did Dillon say about the insurgents during his outburst in the Commons on 11th May 1916?

they "fought a clean fight, a brave fight, however misguided"

What was the Easter Rising dubbed by many? (particularly British officials)

a "Sinn Fein Rebellion"

When was Casement executed? (he was hanged)

1 August 1916

What was the religious reaction to the Rising?

Generally they condemned the Rising - "criminal and insane"

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