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Gender differences in the prevalence of depression may be partly due to the fact that when stressful experiences occur:
A) women tend to act, while men tend to think.
B) women tend to think, while men tend to act.
C) women tend to distract themselves by drinking, while men tend to delve into their work.
D) women tend to delve into their work, while men tend to distract themselves by drinking.

B) women tend to think, while men tend to act.

The criteria for classifying behavior as psychologically disordered:
A) vary from culture to culture.
B) vary from time to time.
C) vary by culture and with time
D) have remained largely unchanged over the course of history.

C) vary by culture and with time

Most mental health workers today take the view that disordered behaviors:
A) are usually genetically triggered.
B) are organic diseases.
C) arise from the interaction of nature and nurture.
D) are the product of learning.

C) arise from the interaction of nature and nurture.

The view that all behavior arises from the interaction of heredity and environment is referred to as the __________ approach.
a. biopsychosocial
b. psychoanalytic
c. medical
d. conditioning

a. biopsychosocial

Which of the following is the most pervasive of the psychological disorders?
A) depression
B) schizophrenia
C) bipolar disorder
D) generalized anxiety disorder

A) depression

Which of the following is not true concerning depression?
A) Depression is more common in females than in males.
B) Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event.
C) Most depressive episodes last less than 3 months.
D) Most people recover from depression without professional therapy.

B) Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event.

Which of the following is not true regarding schizophrenia?
A) It occurs more frequently in people born in winter and spring months.
B) It occurs less frequently as infectious disease rates have declined.
C) It occurs more frequently in lightly populated areas.
D) It usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood.

C) It occurs more frequently in lightly populated areas.

Evidence of environmental effects on psychological disorders is seen in the fact that certain disorders, such as ________, are universal, whereas others, such as ________, are culture-bound.
A) schizophrenia; depression
B) depression; schizophrenia
C) antisocial personality; neurosis
D) depression; anorexia nervosa

D) depression; anorexia nervosa

The effect of drugs that block receptors for dopamine is to:
A) alleviate schizophrenia symptoms.
B) alleviate depression.
C) increase schizophrenia symptoms.
D) increase depression.

A) alleviate schizophrenia symptoms.

The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV:
A) is unknown.
B) depends on the age of the patient.
C) is very low.
D) is relatively high.

D) is relatively high.

Because of some troubling thoughts, Carl recently had a PET scan of his brain that revealed excessive activity in the anterior cingulate area. Carl's psychiatrist believes that Carl suffers from:
a. schizophrenia
b. a mood disorder
c. a personality disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

(Thinking Critically) The term insanity refers to:
A) legal definitions.
B) psychotic disorders only.
C) personality disorders only.
D) both psychotic disorders and personality disorders.

A) legal definitions

Phobias and obsessive-compulsive behaviors are classified as:
A) anxiety disorders.
B) mood disorders.
C) dissociative disorders.
D) personality disorders.

A) anxiety disorders.

According to the social-cognitive perspective, a person who experiences unexpected aversive events may develop helplessness and manifest a(n):
A) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B) dissociative disorder.
C) personality disorder.
D) mood disorder.

D) mood disorder.

Which of the following was presented in the text as evidence of biological influences on anxiety disorders?
A) Identical twins often develop similar phobias.
B) PET scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal unusually high activity in an area of the frontal lobes.
C) Drugs that dampen fear-circuit activity in the amygdala also alleviate OCD.
D) All of the above were presented.

D) All of the above were presented.

Most of the hallucinations of schizophrenia patients involve the sense of:
A) smell.
B) vision.
C) hearing.
D) touch.

C) hearing.

When expecting to be electrically shocked, people with an antisocial disorder, as compared to normal people, show:
A) less fear and greater arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
B) less fear and less autonomic arousal.
C) greater fear and greater autonomic arousal.
D) greater fear and less autonomic arousal.

B) less fear and less autonomic arousal.

Hearing voices would be a(n) ________; believing that you are Napoleon would be a(n) ________.
A) obsession; compulsion
B) compulsion; obsession
C) delusion; hallucination
D) hallucination; delusion

D) hallucination; delusion

In treating depression, a psychiatrist would probably prescribe a drug that would:
A) increase levels of acetylcholine.
B) decrease levels of dopamine.
C) increase levels of norepinephrine.
D) decrease levels of serotonin.

C) increase levels of norepinephrine.

When schizophrenia is slow to develop, called ________ schizophrenia, recovery is ________.
A) reactive; unlikely
B) process; likely
C) process; unlikely
D) reactive; likely

C) process; unlikely

Which of the following is true concerning abnormal behavior?
A) Definitions of abnormal behavior are culture-dependent.
B) A behavior cannot be defined as abnormal unless it is considered harmful to society.
C) Abnormal behavior can be defined as any behavior that is distressful.
D) Definitions of abnormal behavior are based on physiological factors.

A) Definitions of abnormal behavior are culture-dependent.

The psychoanalytic perspective would most likely view phobias as:
A) conditioned fears.
B) displaced responses to incompletely repressed impulses.
C) biological predispositions.
D) manifestations of self-defeating thoughts.

B) displaced responses to incompletely repressed impulses.

Many psychologists believe the disorganized thoughts of people with schizophrenia result from a breakdown in:
A) selective attention.
B) memory storage.
C) motivation.
D) memory retrieval.

A) selective attention.

Research evidence links the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to ________ during prenatal development.
A) maternal stress
B) a viral infection contracted
C) abnormal levels of certain hormones
D) the weight of the unborn child

B) a viral infection contracted

The fact that disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity, whereas other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound provides evidence for the ________ model of psychological disorders.
A) medical
B) biopsychosocial
C) social-cultural
D) psychoanalytic

B) biopsychosocial

Our early ancestors commonly attributed disordered behavior to:
A) "bad blood."
B) evil spirits.
C) brain injury.
D) laziness.

B) evil spirits.

In general, women are more vulnerable than men to:
A) external disorders such as anxiety.
B) internal disorders such as depression.
C) external disorders such as antisocial conduct.
D) internal disorders such as alcohol abuse.

B) internal disorders such as depression.

Which of the following statements concerning the labeling of disordered behaviors is not true?
A) Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders.
B) Labels promote research studies of psychological disorders.
C) Labels may create preconceptions that bias people's perceptions.
D) Labels may influence behavior by creating self-fulfilling prophecies.

A) Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders.

(Thinking Critically) Nicholas Spanos considers dissociative identity disorder to be:
A) a genuine disorder.
B) merely role-playing.
C) a disorder that cannot be explained according to the learning perspective.
D) a biological phenomenon

B) merely role-playing.

Which neurotransmitter is present in overabundant amounts during the manic phase of bipolar disorder?
A) dopamine
B) serotonin
C) epinephrine
D) norepinephrine

D) norepinephrine

After falling from a ladder, Joseph is afraid of airplanes, although he has never flown. This demonstrates that some fears arise from:
A) observational learning.
B) reinforcement.
C) stimulus generalization.
D) stimulus discrimination.

C) stimulus generalization.

Which of the following provides evidence that human fears have been subjected to the evolutionary process?
A) Compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to our species' survival.
B) Most phobias focus on objects that our ancestors also feared.
C) It is easier to condition some fears than others.
D) All of the above provide evidence.

D) All of the above provide evidence.

Which of the following is true of the medical model?
A) In recent years, it has been in large part discredited.
B) It views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable.
C) It emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disorders over that of physiological factors.
D) It focuses on cognitive factors.

B) It views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable

(Thinking Critically) Psychoanalytic and learning theorists both agree that dissociative and anxiety disorders are symptoms that represent the person's attempt to deal with:
A) unconscious conflicts.
B) anxiety.
C) unfulfilled wishes.
D) unpleasant responsibilities.

B) anxiety.

Behavior is classified as disordered when it is:
A) deviant.
B) distressful.
C) dysfunctional.
D) all of the above.

D) all of the above.

Most practitioners find the DSM-IV-TR a helpful and practical tool despite its
a. failure to emphasize observable behaviors in the diagnostic process
b. learning theory bias
c. medical model bias
d. psychoanalytic bias

c. medical model bias

Which of the following is not a symptom of schizophrenia?
A) inappropriate emotions
B) disturbed perceptions
C) panic attacks
D) disorganized thinking

C) panic attacks

Social-cognitive theorists contend that depression is linked with:
A) negative moods.
B) maladaptive explanations of failure.
C) self-defeating beliefs.
D) all of the above.

D) all of the above.

According to psychoanalytic theory, memory of losses, especially in combination with internalized anger, is likely to result in:
A) learned helplessness.
B) the self-serving bias.
C) weak ego defense mechanisms.
D) depression.

D) depression.

Among the following, which is generally accepted as a possible cause of schizophrenia?
A) an excess of endorphins in the brain
B) being a twin
C) extensive learned helplessness
D) a genetic predisposition

D) a genetic predisposition

a disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, feelings, and thoughts

dissociative disorder

approach that considers behavior disorders as illnesses that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured.

medical model

psychological disorders marked by emotional extremes

mood disorders

intense fear of being scrutinized by others

social phobia

approach that considers behavior disorders to be the result of biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences

biopsychosocial approach

an extremely elevated mood

mania

a disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and actions

obsessive-compulsive disorder

a group of disorders marked by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inapropriate emotions and action

schizophrenia

a false sensory experience

hallucination

a sudden escalation of anxiety often accompanied by a sensation of choking or other physical symptoms

panic attack

positive psychological changes stemming from dealing with an extreme crisis

post-traumatic growth

a rare somatoform disorder

conversion disorder

a disorder formerly called muliple personality disorder

dissociative identity disorder

an axiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear of specific object or situation

phobia

a neurotransmitter for which there are excess receptors in some schizophrenia patients

dopamine

an anxiety disorder makred by episodes of intense dread

panic disorder

an individual who seems to have no conscience

antisocial personality

a neurotransmitter that is overabundant during mania and scarce during depression

norepinephrine

a neurotransmitter possibly linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder

serotonin

a type of mood disorder

bipolar disorder

false beliefs that may accompany psychological disorders

delusions

a fear of situations in which help might not be available during a panic attack

agoraphobia

disorder in which bodily symptoms occur without an apparent physical cause

somatoform disorder

misinterpreting normal physical senstations as disease

hypochondriasis

deviant, distressful, and dysnfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions

psychological disorders

provides diagnostic guidelines and categories that aid mental health professionals by providing a common language and shared concepts for communication and research

DSM-IV-TR

feel persistently and uncontrollably tense and apprehensive for no apparent reason

generalized anxiety

symptoms include four or more weeks of haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and sleep problems following some traumatic and uncontrollable event

post-traumatic stress disorder

experiences two or more weeks of seriously depressed moods, feelings of worthlesness, and diminished interest and pleasure in most activities

major depressive disorder

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