ch 19

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Respiration is

gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells

The events of respiration are

ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.

The ultimate function of breathing is to

. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment

Which of the following bones does not house a sinus?

zygomatic

Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single

cricoid

The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the

tension on the vocal cord

Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of

infection

the vocal cords are in the

larynx

Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?

cooling exhaled air

The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the

force of air passing over the vocal cords

A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the

frontal sinus

Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may

obstruct the airway

the procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called

bronchoscopy

The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity

warms incoming air, moistens incoming air, entraps dust, entraps other small particles

The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.

common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only

The trachea

is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings, is a passageway for air, is also called the windpipe.

As the respiratory tube branches become finer

the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.

The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes

superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior

The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the

atmospheric pressure

The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the

elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension

The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the

tidal volume

Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?

vital capacity

Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by

lack of surfactant

The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by

a thin film of serous fluid

Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called

pneumothorax

A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes?

risidual volume

. The most sensitive areas of the air passages are in the

larynx and bronchi.

The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the

tidal volume

The first event in inspiration is

the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract

The first event in expiration is

the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax

The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as

Boyle's law

The probable function of yawning

. is poorly understood

. The respiratory areas are in the

pons and medulla oblongata

"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because

increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors

Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is

a central problem of respiratory control

Emily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate?

Baroreceptors

The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has

central chemoreceptors

Which of the following factors does not directly affect breathing rate?

ph

Peripheral receptors stimulate the respiratory areas resulting in

increased respiratory rate

. The partial pressure of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory areas is ___ of normal

50%

Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration because

deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated

Which of the following is important in maintaining the pH of blood

Carbon dioxide

The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration of

oxygen

Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to

. increase the rate and depth of breathing

Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n)

decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH

Max works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of

oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged

Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due to

an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions

The walls of the alveoli are composed of

simple squamous epithelium.

. The respiratory membrane consists of

two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes

Alveoli are kept clean by the action of

macrophages.

. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn's umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatment

the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane

Police stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because of

the thinness of his respiratory membranes

. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when

carbon dioxide concentration increases

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes

carbon dioxide to react with water.

Which of the following proteins transports some carbon dioxide in the blood

hemoglobin

globin is

. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood

. The chloride shift

maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma.

A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patients

highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide

Changes in the respiratory system that accompany aging are

thickened mucus.
B. slowed swallowing reflex.
C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out.
D. cilia become less active or vanish

Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk of

heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight

Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of

damage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels.
B. platelet activation
C. abnormal blood clotting.
D. decreased coronary artery blood flow.

Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin in

epithelial (lining) cells

Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections because

their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria

In emphysema

pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange

In October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system was

very small particles of debris

A disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, is

extrinsic allergic alveolitis

Bronchial asthma is usually caused by

an allergy

During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to

exhale

Emphysema increases

none of the above

Breathing rate increases during exercise due to

signals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract.
B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors.
C. a joint reflex.
D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide.

The hypoxia associated with high altitude can cause

vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels

At high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high,

fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli

Atelectasis is

a collapsed lung.

In tuberculosis

fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection.

Pneumonia can be caused by

bacteria, viruses, or fungi

Another word for breathing is ventilation

t

Cellular respiration enables cells to harness the energy from oxygen

f

The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax

t

The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords

f

The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords

t

The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes

f

The pectoralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration

f

. The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration

t

A sudden contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze

f

Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen

t

Gas exchange occurs across alveolar pores

f

Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen

t

The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide

f

Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin

f

Carbon monoxide is toxic because it destroys respiratory areas in the brain.

f

Coughing reflexes become faster with age

f

The bronchus and blood vessels enter a lung through the _______.

hilum

The nasal conchae create passageways in the nasal cavity called ______.

meatuses

The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.

epiglottis

The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.

visceral pleura

The ease with which the lungs can be expanded during breathing is called ______.

comliance

The respiratory areas are in the medulla oblongata and the ____ of the brainstem

pons

A voluntary increase in the rate and depth of breathing is called ______.

hyperventilation

In a mixture of gases, each gas creates a pressure called its ______ ______.

partial pressure

The cells of an alveolus that secrete surfactant are type __.

2

When carbon dioxide bonds to hemoglobin, the compound ______ forms

carbaminohemoglobin

. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin ______ as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases

increases

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