explain what constitutes evidence.
is any information about the facts of a case, including tangible items, testimony, and documents, photographs, or tapes, which, when presented to the jury at trial, tends to prove or disprove these facts.
state the objectives of the rules of evidence
are to know what is admissible at a trial, ensure the integrity of all evidenc, protect a defendant's rights, and ensure a fair trial.
Name the most common version of evidence law in the United States.
the Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE).
describe the three basic police functions.
the police are called upon to perform these basic functions:
(a) enforcing the law, which includes detecting and investigating crimes, apprehending suspects, and assisting in the prosecution of offenders;
(b) maintaining public order, which includes activities such as crowd control and crime prevention, as well as responding to domestic and civil disturbances;
(c) providing various public services, such as responding to emergencies, helping stranded motorists, and finding missing children.
contrast the jobs of the presecuting attorney and the defense attorney.
it is the job of the prosecutor to take a case from the police and pursue it until the case terminates by trial, guilty plea, or dismissal. the prosecutor must decide whether to pursue a formal charge and, if so, what crime to charge. Defense counsel must zealously represent the criminal defendant from the point of interrogation through the trial process, demanding that the prosecution respect the defendant's rights, treat the defendant fairly, and meet the burden of proof beyond a reasonable doubt in the event the case goes to trial.
describe the dual court system in the United States.
the federal court system applies nationwide and federal courts are located in each state. each state also has its own court system. the federal courts coexist with individual state court systems. whether a defendant is tried in a federal or state court depends on which court has jurisdiction over the case. Most states; structures are similar to that of the federal courts--a trial court, an intermediate appellate court, and a supreme court.
Define probable cause to arrest
is when an officer possesses enough evidence to lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been committed and that the suspect was the one who committed the crime.
State the two alternative ways that a defendant can be formally charged with a serious crime in the United States
either by indictment of a grand jury or by the filing of an information by the prosecution after preliminary hearing.