earth systems ch 13

52 terms by namisa

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crust

-very thin
-less than 1% of earths volume

moho discontinuity

-between crust and mantle

mantle

-mantle occupies most space (84%)
-upper/lower mantle, and asthenosphere

asthenosphere

molten material

lithosphere

uppermantle and crust

outer core

molten
magnetic field of earth generated by iron rich core

inner core

dense mass

continental crust

composition, light

oceanic crust

more dense and heavy

minerals

naturally formed compounds and elements of earth
building blocks of rocks

characteristics of minerals

-natural
-solid
-inorganic
-specific chemical comp
-crystalline structure

silicates

most common element in the lithosphere
oxygen and silicone
left over

oxides

elements combined with oxygen

sulfides

sulfur and another element; ores

sulfates

oxygen and sulfur

carbonates

light colored
combo of oxygen, carbon, and another element
limstone

halides

salty minerals
arid regions
dont stick around

native elements

gold and silver

rocks

composed of many minerals

bedrock

deep underground rock

outcrop

rocks exposed to the surface

regolith

as rocks break up

magma

molten rock deep inside

lava

when molten rock (magma) comes out

igneous rock

"fiery inception"
pyrocastics
based on mineral comp and texture
felsic and mafic

pyroclastics

rocks welded together

felsic

light colored

mafic

dark colored

plutonic (intrusive)

Rocks cool beneath Earth's surface
slowing cooling: mineral grains have time to grow large
course texture
Granite

volcanic extrusive

Form on Earth's surface
Cool rapidly (lava exposed to air) solidifies
Basalt (oceanic crust) fine texture

sedimentary rock

External processes cause rock disintegration
Material transported by water as sediment
Over long periods, large amounts of sediment build to large thicknesses (layering)
Exert enormous pressure which causes particles in sediment to interlock (clastic)
Chemical cementation takes place (chemicals dissolves into spaces)
strata

strata

Strata—horizontal layers of sedimentary rock; sometimes tilted into vertical by Earth processes

clastic

composed fragments of preexisting rocks
cemented together because of pressure
shale

chemical and organic sedimentary rock

Formed by precipitation of soluble materials or complicated chemical reactions
Limestone and coal
Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal form from remains of dead plants and animals

metamorphic rocks

igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed by heat and pressure
rearranges crystal structure
predictable shape

contact metamorphism

rock contacts magma and is rearranged

regional metamorphism

large volumes of rock are subjected to heat and pressure over long time scales' underground; intensive areas

schist

metamorphic rocks with narrow foilations

gneiss

broad, banded foilations

the rock cycle

ongoing processes where rocks transition from one type to the other

continental crust

sedimentary rock makes up 75%
not thick
granite

ocean floor crust

basalt
heavier; goes under continental

isostasy

crust sinks under weight and rebound when material is removed

topography

surface configurations of earth

landform

individual topographic feature of any size

geomorphology

Study of Earth's land forms and the processes that have formed them

elements of landform study

Structure
Process
Slope
Drainage

relief

Difference in elevation between highest
and lowest points in an area

internal geo process

originate from within Earth, increase relief of land surface

external geo process

originate from sources above the lithosphere, such as the atmosphere or oceans; decrease relief of land surface

uniformitarianism

"The present is the key to the past"
Processes which shaped the landscape of the past are the same that will shape the future

geologic time

Vast periods of time over which geologic processes operate

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