to express high levels of trust in government
Voter perceptions of the qualities of a candidate
Minority party is able to win the support of majority party members, independents, &new voters
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
election in which the majority party of the day wins both Congress and the White House, maintaining its control of government
an election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term
participation is a response to contextual cues and political opportunities
general feelings of estrangement from the political system; the belief that voting is useless and that individuals cannot influence political events
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
rational choice model
model argues tat voting is the product of a rational cost benefit calculation
1. Individuals will vote if the benefits outweigh the costs; and
2. Cast their ballot for candidates who are closest to sharing their views on the issues
3. Poor match with the reality of voting behavior
a. Costs of voting outweighed the conceivable benefit
b. Information costs high; lack of issue information
4. Party identification viewed as reducing info costs
5. Issues become more important if campaign emphasizes them
an election in which there is a long term change in party alignment, e.g., 1932.
Occurs when the old party reclaims power following a deviating election
voting based on the past performance of a candidate
(Michigan model) There are three attitudes:
1. Psychological attachment to a political party.
2. Opinion about the candidates.
3. Issue attitudes. People will vote for a candidate unless 2 and 3 outweigh 1.
"Funnel of causality" means that social characteristics, party identification, issue, and attitude towards a candidate leads to vote choice.
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors
(Columbia model) earliest voting behavior study. onducted by communications students who saw voters as consumers, parties as products, and campaigns as ads.• motivated by propaganda concerns. FINDINGS: o Voters don't change mind much = campaign has minimal effect o Voters select candidate before campaign based on sociological factors
The proportion of persons of voting age who actually vote in a given election
Michael McDonald and Samuel Popkin point out that not all residents older than minimum voting age are eligible to vote