S&F Chapter 5 - Integumentary System and Body Membranes

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Integumentary System

The skin; the largest and most important organ in the body

Membrane

Thin layer of sheet; help cover the body, lubricate agent, and protection

Epithelial membranes and Connective tissue membranes

There are two major categories of body membranes:

Epithelial membranes

Composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue

Connective tissue membrane

Composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane

Cutaneous, serous, mucous membrane

There are three types of epithelial tissue membranes in the body:

Cutaneous membrane

Primary organ of the integumentary system; the skin

16%

How many percent of body weight does the skin composes of?

Serous membrane

A two-layered epithelial membrane that lines body cavities and covers the surfaces of organs

Basement membrane

The connective tissue layer of the serous membrane that holds and supports the epithelial cells

Parietal portion and visceral portion

There are two types of serous membranes

Parietal portion

A serous membrane that lines the walls of a body cavity

Visceral portion

serous membrane that covers the organs found in a body cavity

Pleura

The serous membrane in the thoracic cavity

Peritoneum

The serous membrane in the abdominal cavity

Pleurisy

inflammation of the serous membrane (pleura) that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity. Is sometimes a serous complication of an infected appendix

Mucous membranes

Epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior and secrete a thick, slippery material called mucus

Mucocutaneou junction

Describe the transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet

Synovial membranes

Connective tissue membrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secretes synovial fluid

Synovial fluid

the thick, colorless lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane

Bursae

Small, cushion-like sacs found between moving body parts, making movement easier

Epidermis

The outermost layer of the skin. It is a relatively thin sheet of stratified squamous epithelium

Dermis

Deeper of the two payers. It is thicker than the epidermis and is made up largely of connective tissue

Subcutaneous tissue

Tissue below the layers of skin; made up of loose connective tissue and fat

Hypodermis

The loose, ordinary (areloar) tissue just under the skin and superficial to the muscles; also called subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia

Subcutaneous tissue

This connective tissue acts as a shock-absorbing pad and helps protect underlying tissues from injury caused by bumps and blows to the body surface

Stratum germinativum

The innermost of the tightly packed epithelial cells of the epidermis; cells in this layer are able to reproduce themselves

Karatin

Protein substance found in hair , nails, outer skin cells, and horny tissues

Stratum corneum

The tough outer layer of the epidermis; cells are filled with keratin

Blisters

A baglike fluid-filled elevation of the skin caused by an irritant such as heat, friction, or a chemical

Pigment layer

The layer of the epidermis that contains the melanocytes that produce melanin to give skin its color

Melanin

Brown skin pigment

Melanocytes

Specialized cells in the pigment layer that produce melanin

Melanin

It's main function is to absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation from sunlight before it reaches tissues below the outer layers of the skin

Cyanosis

Bluish appearance of the skin caused by deficient oxygenation of the blood

Dermal-epidermal junction

The junction that exists between the think epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below

Collagen

Principle organic constituent of connective tissue; tough and strong fibers

Elastic

Fiber that are stretchable and elastic

Dermal papillae

Upper region of the dermis that forms part of the dermal-epidermal junction and forms the ridges and grooves of fingerprints

Dermal papillae

They form the ridges and grooves that make up your fingerprints and footprints

Reticular layer

The deeper area of the dermis is filled with a dense network of interlacing fibers

Follicles

specialized structures required for hair growth

Lanugo

The extremely fine and soft hair found on a newborn infant

Hair follicle

A small tube where hair growth occurs

Hair papilla

A small, cap-shaped cluster of cells located at the base of the follicle where hair growth begins

Arrector pili

Smooth muscles of the skin, which are attached to hair follicles; when contraction occurs, the hair stands up, resulting in "goose flesh"

Goose bumps

Between the depressed points of the skin and at the same time pulls the hairs up until they are more or less straight

Tactile (Meissner) corpuscle

A sensory receptor located in the skin close to the surface that detects light touch

Lamellar (Pacini) corpuscle

A receptor found deep in the dermis that detects pressure on the skin surface

Free nerve endings

Specialized receptors in the skin that respond to pain

Bulboid corpuscles (Krause's end bulbs)

Skin receptor that detects sensations of cold

Nails

Classified as accessory organs of the skin and are produced by cells in the epidermis

Nail body

The visible part of the nail

Lunula

Crescent-shaped white area under the proximal nail bed

Cuticle

Skinfold covering the root of the nail

Nail root

The part of the nail that is hidden by the cuticle

Nail bed

epithelium under the nail

Sweat (sudoriferous) glands and sebaceous glands

What are two skin glands

Sweat (sudoriferous) glands

Glands that secrete sweat; also referred to as sweat glands

Eccrine and apocrine

Sweat glands can classified into two groups

Eccrine sweat glands

Small sweat glands distributed over the total body surface

3000 eecrine sweat glands

A single square inch of skin on the palms of the hands estimate how many eccrine sweat glands?

Pores

Pinpoint-size opening on the skin that serves as an outlet of a small duct from the eccrine sweat glands

Apocrine sweat glands

Sweat glands located in the axilla and genital regions; these glands enlarge and begin to function at puberty

Contamination and decomposition of the secretion by skin bacteria

Aprocrine sweat glands caused by

Sebaceous glands

Oil-producing gland found in the skin

Sebum

"nature's skin cream" secretion of sebaceous glands

White pimples

Sebum accumulates in and enlarges some of the ducts of the sebaceous glands forming a

Blackhead

Sebum that accumulates, darkens, and enlarges some of the ducts of the sebaceous glands; also known as a comedo

Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the epidermis; slow-growing cancer that is capable of metastasizing; the most common type of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

One of the most common forms of skin cancer, usually occurs on upper face, with low potential for metastasizing

Malignant

Cancerous growth

Squamouse cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma

What are the three most common types of skin cancer

Ultraviolet radiation

What is the most important factor in causing the common skin cancer

Kaposi sarcoma

A malignant neoplasm (cancer) of the skin characterized by purplish spots

Basal cell carcinoma

this type of skin cancer are less likely to metastasize than other types

Benign

noncancerous

Melanoma

Epidemiological studies show that adults who had more than two blistering sunburns before the age of 20 have a much greater risk to develop:

Protection, temperature regulation, sense organ activity

What are three most important function of the skin

Asymmetry, border, color, diameter

What to assess of signs of malignant melanoma

Asymmetry

o Benign moles are usually symmetrical; their halves are mirror images of each other.
o Melanoma lesions are asymmetrical or lopsided

Border

o Benign moles are outlined by a distinct border
o malignant melanomal lesions are often irregular or indistinct in shape.

Color

o Benign moles may be any shade of brown but are relatively evenly colored
o Melanoma lesions tend to be evenly colored, exhibiting a mixture of shades or colors.

Diameter

o Melanoma lesion is probably larger than 6 mm (1/4 inches)

Burns

An injury to tissues resulting from contact with heat, chemicals, electricity, friction, or radiant and electromagnetic energy; classified into four categories, depending on the number of tissue layers involved

"Rule of Nines"

A frequently used method to determine the extent of a burn injury; the body is divided into 11 areas of 9% each and 1% to the perineum to help estimate the amount of skin surface burned in an adult

First-degree burn

Minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. The surface layers of the epidermis may peel in 1 to 3 days, no blistering occurs, and actual tissue destruction is minimal

Second-degree burn

Deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layers of the dermis. Complete destruction of the dermis does not occur.

Partial-thickness burns

Term used to describe both minor burn injury and severe burns that injury both epidermis and dermis (first and second degree burns)

Third-degree

also known as full-thickness burn; characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis

Dermis

This layer of skin contains a specialized network of nerves and nerve endings to process sensory information.

Cyanosis

This condition occurs when blood oxygen levels decrease or if actual blood flow is reduced dramatically

Dermal blood vessel

The dermal pailla is nourish by the

Eccrine

Which sweat glands are the most numerous and are, with few exceptions, distributed over the total body surface?

Reticular layer

Deeper area of the dermis is felled with a dense network of interlacing fibers

1-2 mm/week

How long does a nail grow

Dendrite

Branching or treelike; a nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the body

Axon

Nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from the cell body

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