European Renaissance- Ch. 13

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King Edward III

Son of Queen Isabella of England, King of England who claimed French crown in 1337, which caused the Hundred Years War

Sforza Family

Harshly governed Milan, while calling it a "republic" (Oligarchy)

Medici Family

Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries

Cosimo de Medici

Created first library, discovered Michelangelo, was a Medici

Lorenzo de Medici

Ruler of Florence; great patron of the arts

Piero de Medici

Son of Lorenzo, attemped to regain peace with France and failed

Pope Alexander IV

Reasserted papal authority in authority in papal lands with the help of his son, Cesare Borgia

Cesare Borgia

Son of Pope Alexander IV, Ruler to which Machiavelli dedicated his novel, The Prince

Girolamo Savonarola

Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing Pope Alexander VI

Charles VIII

French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the Italian Wars

Louis XII

French King, created League of Cambrai to strip Venice of mainland possessions

Maximilian

German Emperor, worked with Louis XII to strip Venice of wealth

Pope Leo X

Dangerous ally of Maximilian and Louis XII; helped them attack Venice

Charles V

A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I.

Petrarch

(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization. Thought he was witnessing a new golden age - collected ancient books

Cellini

Gold Smith and sculptor who was certain of his own personal genius that he wrote about in his autobiography so that the whole world might appreciate it.

Pope Nicholas V

Collected thousands of manuscripts and planned the Vatican library.

Pope Sixtus IV

Built the Vatican library

Leonardo Bruni

Termed "humanism" or "new learning"

Cicero

Stated that humanism was needed by everyone who wanted to be considered educated and civilized

Pico Della Mirandola

"On the Dignity of Man" ; man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God; between beasts and angels; no limits to what man can accomplish

Lorenzo Valla

"On Pleasure" ; the pleasures of the senses as the highest good, secularism

Giovanni Bocaccio

"The Decameron" ; accumulation and enjoyment of wealth, secularism

Pope Julius II

Tore down St. Peter's Basilica and commissioned Michelangelo to build the dome; "warrior pope"

Michelangelo

This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Pieta

Leonardo Da Vinci

one of the most famouse artists and scientists of the Renaissance- Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, sketched the human skeleton

Raphael

Painted the frescoes in the Vatican Palace, The School of Athens, and St. George and the Dragon

Andrea Mantegna

Was one of the foremost north Italian painters of the 15th century who mastered perspective and foreshortening and made important contributions to the compositional techniques of Renaissance painting; painted Gonzaga family

Strozzi Family

Rival banking family of the Medici's, patrons of many artists

Giotto

Led the way in the use of realism in art

Donatello

Revived classical figure, with its balance and self-awareness

Piero Della Francesca

Known for his use of light and perspective in his artwork

Pietro Aretino

Artist, humanist, satirizer of princes, complimented Michelangelo on Sistine Chapel

Titian

Distinguished artist, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retrieves paintbrush for him, demonstrating honor/respect

Bellini

"Saint Mark Preaching in Alexandria"

Benozzo Gozzoli

Painted the Journey of the Magi (1459-60) portraying members of the Medici family, with its princes flamboyantly dressed and set against a landscape, creating a fairy tale of the Renaissance.

Castiglione

Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

Machiavelli

Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations

Johann Gutenberg (Fust and Schoffer)

Created moveable type- Gutenberg's bible

Pope Sylvester II

Built the first mechanical clock in the west

Sofonisba Anguissola

A female renaissance artist best known for her self-portraits and for her portrait of Philip II

Ubertinus

Ruler of Carrara

Artemisia Gentileschi

Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and her Judith paintings

Isabella Andreini

Greatest actress of her days in the Renaissance

Laura Cereta

A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas. She was Italian, and like Christine de Pisan, she furthered her education after her husband died and began publishing writing. Neither women nor men supported her, so she stopped writing after her father died. She did, however, help pave the way for other educated women

Bernardino of Siena and Savorola

In speeches, condemned sodomy (gay, lesbian)

Saint Maurice

a soldier executed by the romans for refusing to renounce his Christian faith

Thomas More

Wrote "Utopia" and condemned society as no good. Stated that a person's improvement mirrors the improvement of society

Erasmus

"Praise of Folly" ; Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe

Rabelais

"Gargantua" and "Pantagruel" humor and satire in writing; wild and gross humor; made fun of church

Van Der Weyden

Flemish painter considered artistically to the Italian Renaissance painters

Van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting

Jerome Bosch

He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art

Louis XI

"Spider King" ; King of France who put down an alliance of unruly nobles and unified France except for Brittany (1423-1483)

Henry VII

Henry Tudor of Lancaster who defeated Richard III. Established Court of Star Chamber, and ended personal armies of Lords

Ferdinand and Isabella

Marriage uniting Aragon and Castile. Together carried out Reconquista and Inquisition of Spain

Charles VII

King of France who was asked by Joan of Arc for an army to save the city of Orleans; doubted her, but gave her soldiers; Created tailles, or land taxes

Henry IV

The first Lancastrian king of England; suppressed rebellions

Edward IV

Defeated Henry VI to become king of England; established some domestic tranquility and brought back monarch after war of the roses

Richard III

He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses

Henry VIII

His divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and the start of the Reformation in England

Castile and Leon

A single political organization; independent from other principalities of Spain

Pope Alexander VI

This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America

Philip and Joanna

Joanna was daighter to Ferdinand and Isabella. Married Philip of Bergundian Netherlands to produce powerful dynasty

Durer

A leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance; praying hands

Copernicus

Heliocentrric theory

Hans Holbien the Younger

A famous artist. He painted a portrait of Erasmus

Boticelli

Renaissance painter, famous works are "La Primavera" and "The Birth of Venus" (firs full frontal female nude since ancient ties, roman goddess, idea of the perfect woman), work is completely secular

Tintoretto

Venetian; tried to unite design of Michelangelo and color of Titian, dissected bodies to learn anatomy

Brueghel

Flemishschool. focused on comma man and landscapes;showed disparity;all aspects of society have value;the beggars;the wedding;the wedding banquet

Rembrandt

Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus

Habsburg- Valois Wars

When the French returned to Italy in 1521, a series of conflicts broke out between the German and French dynasties

Secularism

The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking and the Church

Pragmatic Sanction

Passed by Charles VII, established special rights of the French crown over the French church - allowed king to control over appointing bishops and depriving Pope of power

Concordat of Bologna

1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots

Spanish Inquisition

Brutal campaign led by Roman Catholic Church from 1481 to 1834 to punish nonbelievers including Jews and Muslims

Black Death

The epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe

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