Chapter 10:Thinking and Language

44 terms by torialodzinski

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congition

mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

prototypes

a mental image or best example of a category. match new items to the ____ provides a quick adn easy method for including items in a category

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but more error prone-use of heuristics

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; speedier but more error prone than algorithms

insight

a sudden and soften novel realisation of the sloution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions
-right temporal lobe just above ear

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for info that confirms ones preconceptions

fixation

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an inpediment to problem solving

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in past

functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their ususal functions; an impediment to problem solving

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relivant information

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, perhaps because of their vividness, we presume such events are common

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

belief bias

tendency for on'es preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid

belief perserverance

clinging to ones inital conceptions after the basis on which they were for formed has been discredited

hindsight bias

looking back on events we falsely surmis that we knew it all along

illusory correlation

intuitively perceiving a relationship where none exists

memory construction

influenced by our present moods and by misinformation, we may form false memories

interviewer illusion

inflated confidence in ones discernment based on the interview alone

mispredicting our own feelings

we often mispredict the intensity and duration of our emtions

self-serving bias

in various ways, we exhibit inflated self-assessments

fundamental attribution error

overly attributing others' behavior to thier dispositions by discounting unnoticed situational forces

mispredicting our own behavior

our intuitive self-predictions often go astray

language

our spoke, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

phonemes

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word

grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

semantics

set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphenes, words, and sentences in a given language. also the study of meaning (-ed = past tense)

syntax

rules for combining words into gramatically senseible sentences in a given language (ex. adj. before noun)

4 months

babies can read lips and discriminate speech sounds

receptive language

ability to comprehend speech

productive language

ability to produce words

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

10 months

can tell household language

one-word stage

the stage in speech development from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks in mostly single words

two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in which speech development of a child is mostly in 2 word statements

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

Chomsky

inborn universal grammar-acquire untaught wrods and grammar at a rate too extraordinary to be explained only by learning priniciples

Skinner

association-sights w/words, immitation of the words others say, reinforcement when child is correct

cognitive scientists

young enfants can learn simple sentence structure, break up syllables, childhood = critical period for learning language

linguistic determinism

whorf's hypothesis that lnaguage determines the way we think
-bilinguals = different sense of self depending on language being spoken

Thinking...

affects our language, which then affects our thought.

Animals can...

form concepts, exhibit insight, use tolls, and transmit cultural innovations, capable of self recognition and comprehending others perceptions
-similar to a2 year old human

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