the energy an object has because of its motion.
the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion.
the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object.
an empty space, with no particles and no pressure.
air exerts pressure on Earth because gravity holds air molecules in Earth's atmosphere. The pressure results from collisions of air molecules with objects.
devices commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure (weather dependent).
the SI unit of pressure.
standard atmosphere (atm)
the pressure required to support 760mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25ºC. 1 atm=760 mm Hg= 101.3 kPa.
conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor.
molecules at surface have enough kinetic energy to escape. Heating speeds up evaporation, but it is a cooling process.
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure. Bubble of vapor form throughout the liquid, rise to the surface, and escape into the air as the liquid boils.
vaporized particles in a sealed container exert pressure.
normal boiling point
the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa. NBP of water=100º. Normal boiling point changes with elevation. Increase external pressure, increase boiling point (sea level), decrease external pressure, decrease boiling point (high altitudes).
the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid. Melting and freezing points are the same temperature. Disruptive vibrations of particles enough to overcome the interactions that hold them in fixed positions.
high melting points.
most solids are crystalline, which means the atoms, ion, or molecules that make up the solid substance are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-d pattern called the crystal lattice. This structure is the same for each compound.
smallest group that retains the crystal structure.
shape of crystal
gives the crystal's properties (graphite, diamond, buckminsterfullerene).
2 or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state.
lack an ordered structure (no lattice): rubber, plastic, asphalt, glass etc.
when you cool a substance until there is no longer any kinetic energy, it reaches a.z.
relates temperature and pressure between the 3 states of matter.
the only conditions where all three pauses exist together
change from solid to vapor (high pressure vapor) eg. dry ice, ice in freezer.