the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Florentine business family, patriarch was Cosimo who established family's power in 1434. Lorenzo, a descendant, would be the great patron of Renaissance artists. Started as wool merchants and became bankers. Great wealth and power. Family would later produce two popes and two queens of France.
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
first sculpture to use lifelike style, made the first David nude and lifesize staute since classical times, talented architect and poet, renowned for both for his painting and his sculpture.
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450. See also movable type.
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
Leading literary figure (English) of the time, he also transformed well-known stories into dramatic masterpieces and wrote plays that focused on human emotions.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
A member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
King Henry VIII
Founder of the church in England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke the Catholic church because he couldn't get a divorce.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. Also called counter-reformation.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola
Council of Trent
(1545-1563) Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
The list of books prohibited by the Catholic Church (obviously Luther's and Calvin's works are included in the Index). The goal was to protect the faith and morals of Catholics by preventing people from being contaminated. It was created during the Counter-Reformation as a way of stopping the spread of Protestantism.
(1546-1601) built an observatory and recorded his observations.
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
Sir Issac Newton
Said, "If I have been able to see further, it was only because I stood on the shoulders of giants." Father of integral calculus, most famous book in Principia Mathametica, defined the laws of motion and universal gravitation and used them to predict the motion of stars and the planets around the sun.
People who belive that no god exists
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
Also called the "age of reason", and took place in the 18th century. Developed as a result of the Scientific Revolution.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. (1632-1704)
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778) Wrote The Social Contract.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed in religious toleration.
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755).
monarchs who introduced reforms to better society (freedom of speech, the press, religious toleration, education, laws)