What is a largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols, such as words or gestural signs, in rule-based ways to create meaning?
Name and describe the 5 elements and structure of language.
Syntax- rules for combining words and phrases
Extra linguistic information- not content but essential to interpreting meaning
Grammar- rules for language use and structure
Phonemes- basic units of sound
What is bilingual, babbling, learning words, syntactic development, pronunciation errors, and errors in word reading?
The 6 Stages of Language Development
Bilingual is _____?
Age of acquisition
What is it called when different languages have different phoneme categories?
Learning words is when ______?
Comprehension precedes production
What is it called when kids can understand basic syntactic rules before they can produce them?
What does imitation account mean?
Learning through imitation
When children infer what words and sentences mean from context and social interactions.
Social Pragmatics Account
What is the General Cognitive Processing Account
Children's ability to learn language is a result of general skills that are applied across many situations
What is neuroimaging?
When language areas are active only during certain, not all, cognitive tasks.
What is thinking?
Any mental activity or processing of information
Groups of objects, actions, and characteristics that share core properties is what?
Categories that organize relations among actions, objects, and ideas is called what?
Problem Solving is what?
Generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a specific goal
Becoming entrenched in a particular problem-solving strategy that inhibits the generation of an alternative approach.
What is functional fixedness?
The difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose could be used for another
Who suggests that there are 8 separate kinds of intelligences?
Name the 8 kinds of intelligences.
Verbal-linguistic, Musical, Logical-mathematical, Visual-spatial, Movement, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist
Robert Sternberg's model posit's the existence of 3 types of intelligence, what are they?
Analytical- ability to reason logically, creative- come up with novel and effective answers, practical- solve real world problems
Solving problems by combining ideas or behaviors in novel and successful ways is known as ______?
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is _____?
The ability to understand our emotions and those of others.
What is marked by an awareness of our biases and cognitive fallibilities?
What is developmental psychology?
The study of how behavior changes over time.
This examines people of different ages at a single time point.
This tracks the development of the same group of people over time.
What is Gene-Environment Interaction?
The impact of genes depends on the environment in which the behavior develops
Nature via Nurture
Genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments
What is prenatal?
The period of time prior to birth
An ovum is an _____?
What is fertilization?
Uniting of egg and sperm
What is the moment pregnancy begins?
What is the cell resulting from egg-cell union?
What is a blastocyst?
A ball of identical cells, each with no specific function
What is an embryo?
2nd week through 8th week after conception, during which limbs, facial features, and major organs take shape.
The 9th week of development through birth, during which physical maturation occurs is what?
What is Teratogen?
Environmental factor that can harm prenatal development
What are the automatic motor behaviors, often present at birth?
What are Motor Behaviors?
Self initiated body movements
Name the 5 reflexes for survival.
Stepping, grasping, startle, sucking, and rooting
Raising head, rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking are examples of what?
The study of how children learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember is known as what?
What is assimilation?
Absorbing new information into current knowledge
What is accommodation?
Altering a belief to make it compatible with experience
List and explain Piaget's 4 Stage Theory
sensorimotor- birth to 2 years; no thought beyond immediate physical experiences
Preoperational- 2 to 7 years; able to think beyond here and now, and unable to perform mental transformations
Concrete operations- 7 to 11 years; able to perform mental transformations but only on concrete physical objects
Formal operations- 11 years to adulthood; able to perform hypothetical and abstract reasoning
What are the cons of Piaget's Theory?
Gradual development, children's reports don't reflect competence, difficult to replicate, and culturally biased
What are the pros of Piaget's Theory?
Reconceptualized cognitive development, viewed children as different from adults, characterized learning as an active process, and explored cognitive processes across domains
A learning mechanism in which parents provide initial guidance in child's learning then gradually remove structure is called what?
What is Zone of proximal Development?
The phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
The ability to reason about what other people know or believe?
Theory of Mind
What does Stranger Anxiety mean?
A fear of strangers, developing around 8 months
What is Attachment?
The emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest.
What is the Phenomenon observed in birds in which babies begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large moving object in the vicinity during the hours immediately after hatching?
What is Temperament?
Behavioral characteristics established at birth
Name and describe the 4 parenting styles.
Permissive- lenient, affectionate, very little punishment
Authoritarian- strict, show little affection, strong discipline
Authoritative- support children but set firm limits (fare best)
Uninvolved- neglectful, ignore children (fare worst)
What is the biological status as male or female?
What is gender?
Characteristics associated with being male or female
Possessing neither complete male nor complete female genitals is called what?
What is the difficulty developing a normal gender identity, sometimes called transsexualism?
Gender Identity Disorder
What is gender role?
Behaviors that tend to accompany being male or female
What is Adolescence?
The transition between childhood commonly associated with the teenage years
What are Primary sex characteristics?
The reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish sexes
What are secondary sex characteristics?
Sex differentiating characteristics that don't relate directly to reproduction, such as breasts in women and deep voices in men
What are female and male sex hormones?
Estrogens and androgens
The start of menstruation is known as what?
What is spermache?
A boy's first ejaculation
What is the decline in reproductive system?
What is Andropause?
Changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of males
What are the Aspects of Aging?
Menopause and sexual changes, changes in ability and physical coordination, and cognitive decline
Cued recall and recognition, memory of relevant material, and performance on analogy and vocabulary tests are examples of what?
Improvements with Aging
What is emotion?
mental states or feelings associated with our evaluation of our experiences
What is Primary Emotion?
One of a small number (perhaps 7) of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal
What is Secondary Emotion?
An enormous number of emotions that seem less likely to be cross-culturally universal
Happiness, Disgust, Sadness, Fear, Surprise, Anger, and Contempt are all examples of what?
The 7 Primary Emotions
What is the Mere Exposure Effect?
Repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it
An unconscious spillover of emotions into nonverbal behavior is _____?
We believe that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they do
Psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction is known as what?
What are incentives?
Things that lure people to action
Behavior is response to rewards of external stimulus is what?
What is the Internal-External Theory?
When obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues than internal cues
When your body weight is 20% over the ideal weight for a given height, this is known as what?
What is Anorexia Nervosa?
Reduced weight to 15% or more below ideal weight. This affects 0.5% to 1% of the population
Recurrent binge eating, followed by efforts to minimize weight gains (purging) is called what? This affects 1 to 3% of the population.
What are the Stages of Human Sexual Response?
1. Desire- beginning of arousal
2. Excitement- physical changes begin
3. Orgasm- rhythmic contractions in vagina/penis muscles
4. Resolution- final phase, body returned to normal state
Sexual attraction preference for members of a particular sex is called what?
When people are attracted to opposite sex, they are what?
Homosexual people are what?
Attracted to same sex
If someone is attracted to men and women they are known as what?
What is Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love?
Intimacy, passion, and commitment