Chapter 32: Circulation and Cardiovascular Systems

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These questions are taken from a study guide for Biology 102 using the book Biology 10th edition by Sylvia S. Mader.

Which of the following has a four-chambered heart like humans?
A. birds
B. some reptiles
C. amphibians
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. A and B are correct

E. A and B are correct

What would cause you to believe that someone has a heart murmur?
A. an irregular ECG
B. irregular heart sounds instead of sharp lub-dub sounds
C. irregular heart beats
D. low blood pressure

B. irregular heart sounds instead of sharp lub-dub sounds

Which of these white blood cells are phagocytic?
A. lymphocytes
B. neutrophils
C. macrophages
D. both neutrophils and macrophages
E. both lymphocytes and macrophages

D. both neutrophils and macrophages

Cnidaria and flatworms exchange gases and remove wastes by way of their
A. open circulatory systems.
B. closed circulatory systems.
C. gastrovascular cavities.
D. moist skin surfaces.
E. respiratory and excretory systems.

C. gastrovascular cavities.

When you step on a cockroach or smash a fly, the blood appears colorless because
A. the blood is enclosed in a closed circulatory system.
B. the blood is actually a colorless hemolymph that carries oxygen on molecules other than reddish hemoglobin.
C. there are no cells in the hemolymph.
D. it does not contain hemoglobin or any other respiratory pigment.

D. it does not contain hemoglobin or any other respiratory pigment.

Which organism has hemoglobin located in the fluid portion of the blood, giving it a red appearance?
A. human
B. grasshopper
C. bird
D. earthworm
E. flatworm

D. earthworm

The Greek root words for "heart" and "vessels" underlies the term
A. arteriole.
B. atrioventricular.
C. cardiovascular.
D. diastole.
E. thromboembolism.

C. cardiovascular.

Which would you find in the heart of a fish?
A. one atrium and one ventricle
B. two atria and one ventricle
C. one atrium and two ventricles
D. two atria and two ventricles
E. two atria and a partially divided ventricle

A. one atrium and one ventricle

What would you find in the heart of a human?
A. one atrium and one ventricle
B. two atria and one ventricle
C. one atrium and two ventricles
D. two atria and two ventricles
E. two atria and a partially divided ventricle

D. two atria and two ventricles

What would you find in the heart of most reptiles?
A. one atrium and one ventricle
B. two atria and one ventricle
C. one atrium and two ventricles
D. two atria and two ventricles
E. two atria and a partially divided ventricle

E. two atria and a partially divided ventricle

What would you find in the heart of an amphibian?
A. one atrium and one ventricle
B. two atria and one ventricle
C. one atrium and two ventricles
D. two atria and two ventricles
E. two atria and a partially divided ventricle

B. two atria and one ventricle

"Artery" and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the name(s) of
A. the hepatic portal vein to a hepatic portal artery.
B. the hepatic and renal systems; they would have to be switched.
C. the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
D. the coronary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
E. none, since the aorta and vena cava do not have "artery" and "vein" in their name.

C. the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.

The Greek root word for "contraction" underlies the term
A. arteriole.
B. systole.
C. cardiovascular.
D. diastole.
E. thromboembolism.

B. systole.

A heart murmur is a distortion of the heartbeat due to blood flowing back through a valve that should be closed. If the heart sound is lub-dub-ssshhh, the most likely cause is a failure of the
A. atrioventricular valves.
B. semilunar valves.
C. mitral (bicuspid) valve.
D. AV node to signal contraction.
E. sinoatrial node to signal contraction.

A. atrioventricular valves.

The fluid under a blister or the lymph that bathes the interstitial spaces between organs is very watery compared with the viscosity of blood plasma. Why?
A. Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, never cross the capillary wall into tissue fluid.
B. Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, are concentrated in the lymph nodes.
C. The capillaries use active transport to retrieve large molecules that leaked away.
D. The viscosity of blood is completely due to blood cells that never leave the vessels.
E. These fluids are primarily water produced by cell respiration, and they are discarded interstitially.

A. Large molecules, such as plasma albumin, never cross the capillary wall into tissue fluid.

The vessels in our circulatory system that allow molecules to diffuse across to tissues are
A. arteries.
B. veins.
C. capillaries.
D. lymph vessels.
E. venules.

C. capillaries.

After leaving our left ventricle, blood next passes through the
A. vena cava.
B. aorta.
C. atrioventricular valve.
D. semilunar valve.
E. left atrium.

D. semilunar valve.

Which structure does blood pass through immediately before it enters the left ventricle?
A. vena cava
B. aorta
C. atrioventricular valve
D. semilunar valve
E. left atrium

C. atrioventricular valve

Which structure does blood pass through immediately before entering the right atrium?
A. vena cava
B. aorta
C. atrioventricular valve
D. semilunar valve
E. left atrium

A. vena cava

The Latin root word for "great artery" underlies the term
A. aorta.
B. vena cava.
C. hepatic portal.
D. pulmonary.
E. coronary.

A. aorta.

The coronary arteries are important because they serve the
A. intestine and liver.
B. brain.
C. lungs.
D. heart.
E. urinary tract.

D. heart.

Normal blood pressure in a 25-year-old person would likely be close to ____ mm Hg.
A. 100/40
B. 120/50
C. 120/80
D. 150/95
E. 200/120

C. 120/80

Which statement is NOT true about red blood cells?
A. They are biconcave disks that lack nuclei when mature.
B. Their normal life span is about 120 days.
C. Hemoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen loosely to transport it.
D. There are about 6 million red blood cells per cubic millimeter of whole blood.
E. They are mainly produced in the liver.

E. They are mainly produced in the liver.

Which kind of white blood cell is involved in the production of antibodies?
A. neutrophils
B. B lymphocytes
C. monocytes
D. eosinophils
E. macrophage

B. B lymphocytes

Which type of blood component is involved in the initiation of clotting?
A. red blood cells
B. white blood cells
C. plasma proteins
D. platelets

D. platelets

The human heart is composed of
A. muscle fibers called myocardium.
B. an outer membranous sac called the pericardium.
C. endocardium.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C only are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

The structure that absorbs nutrients from the small intestines and delivers the nutrients in the blood to the liver is the
A. hepatic portal artery.
B. hepatic portal vein.
C. renal vein.
D. None of the choices are correct.

B. hepatic portal vein.

The pacemaker of the cardiac conduction system is the
A. atrioventricular node.
B. sinoatrial node.
C. medulla oblongata.
D. Purkinje fibers.

B. sinoatrial node.

The primary function of the pulmonary circuit is
A. nutrient exchange.
B. the release of carbon dioxide and absorption of oxygen by blood.
C. release of oxygen and absorption of carbon dioxide by the blood.
D. to supply the force to propel blood throughout the body.

B. the release of carbon dioxide and absorption of oxygen by blood.

Veins primarily depend upon which of the following forces to return blood to the heart?
A. force of blood entering from the arteries
B. skeletal muscle contraction
C. valves to prevent blood back flow
D. All of the choices apply.

B. skeletal muscle contraction

The leading cause of preventable death in the United States is cardiovascular disease. Which of the following are lifestyle modifications that would lower a person's risk of CVD?
A. not smoking
B. lose weight
C. lower fat intake
D. All of the choices are means of lowering risk for CVD.

D. All of the choices are means of lowering risk for CVD.

Major cardiovascular disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
A. atherosclerosis.
B. stroke.
C. hypertension.
D. diabetes.

D. diabetes.

Which best describes an antigen?
A. a protein or polysaccharide that is recognized as foreign by a cell of the immune system
B. any cell of the immune system
C. a protein produced by a B cell that responds against a foreign protein
D. the receptor on a T or B cell that recognizes a foreign protein

A. a protein or polysaccharide that is recognized as foreign by a cell of the immune system

Describe the events that occur in the clotting of blood by choosing the correct sequence of statements that outlines the process.
Platelets and injured tissue release prothrombin activator.
The activated fragments join end-to-end, forming long threads.
Platelets clump at the sight of puncture and partially seal the leak.
Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug in the damaged area and provide a framework for the clot.
Thrombin, acting as an enzyme, severs two amino acid chains (activated fragments) from each fibrinogen molecule.
Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin.
Red blood cells are trapped within the fibrin framework forming a clot.
A. Sequence: 7, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, 6
B. Sequence: 3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4, 7
C. Sequence: 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 2, 1
D. Sequence: 1, 2, 6, 7, 4, 3, 5

B. Sequence: 3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4, 7

The vibration felt in arterial walls due to expansion of the aorta following ventricle contraction is the
A. electrocardiogram.
B. blood pressure.
C. cardiac cycle.
D. pulse.

D. pulse.

A person who is B positive will have
A. A antigens, antibodies to B, and Rh antigens.
B. B antibodies, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.
C. B antigens, antibodies to A, and no Rh antigens.
D. B antigens, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.
E. B antigens, antibodies to B, and Rh antigens.

D. B antigens, antibodies to A, and Rh antigens.

What two forces control the movement of fluid through the capillary wall?
A. the thickness of the capillary wall and the number of cilia
B. blood pressure and osmotic pressure
C. the oxygen and nitrogen concentration
D. the number of veins and arteries

B. blood pressure and osmotic pressure

All capillary beds have blood running to them at all times.
True False

False

The circulatory system is the only way by which an animal can supply oxygen and nutrients to its cells, or remove waste materials from the cells.
True False

False

The hemocoel is an open space in an insect that contains blood outside of the vessels.
True False

True

Sphincter muscles regulate the opening and closing of the capillary beds, directing the flow of blood to different areas of the body depending on the body's needs.
True False

True

The sound of the heartbeat is made when the ventricles contract to pump blood out of the heart.
True False

False

It is estimated that if all the blood vessels in a human were connected end to end, the total distance would reach around the Earth at the equator two times.
True False

True

A portal system carries blood from one organ to another without passing through the heart.
True False

True

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