Gileskirk Christendom Final Identify Flashcards

165 terms by cberkom 

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Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese explorer who was the first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope to India; took 23 days there and 132 days back because of the prevailing winds of the monsoons; was made Viscount of India

Lateen

A triangular sail that could be partially lowered or partially raised and might even maneuver itself; instead of being in a fixed position, it could be attached to a boom that would move to be controlled in accord with the wind. It wouldn't be necessary to turn the whole ship in the face of the land, you could just move the boom.

Prince Henry

Fourth son of King John of Portugal; founder of the Sagres School; known as Henry the Navigator

Hampton Court Conference

1604; Laid out the plan for the King James Bible

Richard Bancroft

Archbishop of Canterbury; assisted King James in the process of developing the KJV; Saw that a new translation could be used as a political tool; reserved the right to edit the final version

Augustus Caesar

Emperor at the time of Christ's Birth; successor to Julius; Initiator of the Pax Romana and the Roman empire

Tiberius

Emperor when Christ was crucified

Titus

Lead the sacking of Jerusalem in 70 A.D as a general

The Comnenus Family

The ruling family of Byzantium at the time of the crusades; prominent during the fourth Crusade

Doge Enrico Dandolo

Leader of Venice; Betrayed the Crusader army, manipulated the Crusader army to attack and sack Zara

The Crusader Kingdoms

Edessa, Antiochia, Tripolis, Cilicia, Jerusalem, (and Cypress)

Zara

A Byzantine, or Christian, city in the East; Attacked by Crusading forces under the influence of Doge Enrico Dandolo

Boniface, Marquis of Monferrat

Leader of the Frankish army in the fourth Crusade; had close family ties to the royal lines of Europe and the Crusader kingdoms; replaced Isaac II and Alexis IV as co-emperors on the flight of Alexis III

St. Anne's Church

A Church built on the traditional site of the house of Mary's mother, Anne; amazing acoustics architecture, and beauty

Battle of Hattin

In 1187, Saladin defeated the crusaders in the decisive battle of Hattin at the edge of Galilee, the Horns of Hattin its two peaks lie directly in the path that, again, Jesus would have followed every year as he made his way from Galilee to Jerusalem.

Fredrick Barbarossa

emperor Fredrick II of Germany; drowned while trying to cross a deep river in full armor

Pax Romana

Time of peace and prosperity, brought about by Augustus Caesar; led to the quick spread of the gospel

St. Ignatius

Apostolic father; disciples Peter and John; pastor at Antioch; martyred, wrote six letters to the churches as he traveled to Rome

The five patriarchates and their designations

Jerusalem, Mother church; Antioch, Fountainhead of Hope; Alexandria, Safeguard of truth; Constantinople, Imperial See; Rome, First among equals

Tertullian

Laid the groundwork for the defense of faith against accusers

Clement

Pastor of the Alexandrian church; established the Alexandrian school of interpretation, which approached Scripture as primarily allegorical and related everything to the gospel

On the Incarnation

Book written by nineteen year old Athanasius in 323 to explain the Incarnation to two young men he was disciplining

Monica

Augustine's mother; faithfully and steadfastly prayed for him throughout his life

Ambrose

The bishop of Milan; Champion of Christian orthodoxy; pastor of all of the church-planting pastors in the region; friend and correspondent with Athanasius and Basil

Arx axiom

Fortress of First Principles; school that Augustine set up to establish young men and women still in their formative years with a biblical worldview

Apologetic

Defending the faith; addressing current issues and different topics from a stridently biblical perspective; reasoned arguments in support of something, usually doctrinal teaching

Creed

A summary statement of doctrinal belief

Theotokos

the God-bearer; referred to Mary who bore God himself when she carried Christ; a full affirmation that Christ is true God from true God, one in being with the father

Mysterium

The result of the fifth ecumenical council which met at Constantinople in 553; accepted that Christ is a mystery that we may never understand, that Christ is fully God and fully man

Goths

The first Germanic tribe to migrate in the Roman Empire in 355; settled in Illyricum and the Balkans

Edict of Milan

Constantine's edict setting Christianity on equal footing with the other religions; made Christianity a tolerated religion, not a favored one

Hadrian's Wall

A wall built in the north of England by Emperor Hadrian to keep the Picts out of Roman Britain

Saxons

Tribe that migrated into British Sussex in 450

Normans

Tribe that migrated from the north, settled finally in Gaulish Normandy

Angles

Tribe that migrated into British Wessex in 458

Anthony of Alexandria

An Alexandrian who separated himself from the world, at first fro short seasons of Prayer, but eventually lived in a desert cave to devote himself to prayer and the word; mentor to Athanasius; a hermit

Knights Templar

A military monastic order established during the Crusades to guard the holy places

Benedict of Nursia

Wrote the first monastic rule, which he took home to Nursia, outside Rome; his rule became the basis upon which monasticism grew and flourished

Augustine of Canterbury

Monk from St. Andrew sent by Gregory in 596, with forty other monks to establish a mission to the Anglo Saxons in England

Moralia

Book written by Gregory while in Constantinople; the book of morals about Job

Hagia Sophia

Basilica; Former church destroyed by the Nika riots; designed by Isodore and Anthemius; consecrated in 537

The Great Schism

The final breach between the Byzantine world and the Latin world when the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox church excommunicated each other

The Reconquista

The reconquest by Christians of the Iberian Peninsula from the moors, accomplished in 1492 by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella

Peter the hermit

The most articulate and the most successful of ll he preachers of the Crusaders; from Amiens; a wondering friar, vagabond preacher, who went from village to village to proclaim the hope of liberatin of the christian east; led the Peasants Crusade to disaster at Xerigordon

Bohemond

Ambitious nobleman from southern Italy; trusted ally of Pope Urban; laid a nine-week siege against Jerusalem, which fell on July 15, 1099

Saladin

Salah a-Din Yusef; 1137~1193; Richards chief rival and opponent; exhibited Christian chivalry

Richard I

aka Richard the Lion Heart; leader of Christian forces during the Third Crusade; a picture of a noble Christian hero; raised in Aquitaine by his mother, Eleanor; married Berengar: chief rival and opponent of Saladin

Bernard of Clairvaux

Instrumental in establishing the Templars; a great preacher, led the monastery at Clairvaux; had direct influence on the election of three popes; preached the second crusade on Easter 1146

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Wife of King Louis VII of France; accompanied him on the Second Crusade; undermined the authority of both Louis and Conrad III; eventually divorced Louis and married Henry II of England; mother of Richard the Lion Heart and King John

King Louis VII

King of France; a leader of the Second Crusade; married to Eleanor of Aquitaine; abandoned the battle for Edessa because of marital conflict

The Medicis

Grand family of Florence; produced several popes in the sixteenth century

Defenestration of Prague

1618; two delegates sent by Ferdinand II to impose Catholicism on Prague were thrown out of a castle window onto a dunghill in protest by the town leaders

Gustavus Adolphus

King of Sweden; fought on the side of the Protestants at the battle of Lutzen, where he died in 1632

Metaphor

An implied comparison, used often in the psalms

Simile

A figure of speech in which two things are compared with like or as

Hyperbole

Exaggeration for the sake of effect

Five elements of a Psalm of Lament

Introductory cry to God; lament or complaint; petition or supplication; statement of confidence in God; vow to praise or praise of God

Claude Goudimel

1514~1572; harmonized the Genevan Psalms and popularized them throughout Europe; Killed during St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

The Bay Psalm Book

1640, First book published in North America

Conrad III

Holy Roman Emperor who went on Crusade with king Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine; struggled with Eleanor for control; routed; fled with one thousand survivors of his original forty thousand troops

Servus Servorum Dei

Servant of the Servants of God; the title that Gregory took upon becoming a bishop of Rome

Theodora

Justinian's wife; a former actress; twenty years his junior; marrying her was likely the most brilliant thing he did

The Long Parliament

Parliament that lasted from 1640~1653; called by Charles I, refused to be dissolved without its permission; finally was dissolved after the Restoration of the Stuarts with the ascension of Charles II

Oliver Cromwell

Puritan Member of Parliament; led an army during the English Civil War; became the Lord Protector during the Commonwealth

John Milton

Author of Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained

James VI of Scotland

Became James I of England on the death of Queen Elizabeth I; son of Mary, Queen of Scots and James V

Edward VI

Protestant son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; reigned for six years; died at the age of fifteen

Paradise Lost

Epic length poem by John Milton, about the fall of man, but also a political allegory about England

The Westminster Standards

Five Documents that came from the Westminster Assembly: The Form of Presbyterial government, Directory for public worship, the Confession of Faith, the Larger Catechism, and the Shorter catechism

Charles I

Stuart King of England until the English Civil War; was put to death for treason because of his ideas of the Divine Right of Kings

The Solemn League and Covenant

Called for a new Westminster Assembly to draft guidelines for the reformation of the nation and the ordering of the church

The Jerusalem Chamber

A building adjoining Westminster Abbey where the Westminster Assembly met

The Restoration

After the English Civil war; the regicide of Charles I, the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, and the Interregnum of Richard Cromwell, Charles II, son of Charles I, was restored to the throne

The Star Chamber

An unofficial court set up by Charles I; operated outside of the rule of law; vehicle of persecution against the Puritans

Jenny Geddes

Scottish maid who threw her milk stool at Bishop Laud's representative when he began to read a Romish rite at Gileskirk; memorialized in poetry

The Book of Sports

Commissioned by Bishop Laud, published in 1618, later republished in 1633; caused great upheaval in the Puritan world; some argue it was one of the leading causes of the English Civil war; a book that promoted sporting events on Sundays

Salutary Neglect

The policy of the British toward her colonies; because of the wars around the world, very little attention was paid to the colonies; this left them free to develop their own representative republican governing institutions

The Arbrouth Declaration

1320; hammered out by Robert the Bruce, providing rights to individuals, landholders, freeholders, and serfs; reflected in America's founding documents

The Mayflower Compact

The document signed by the pilgrims before they landed at Plymouth Plantation, setting up a representative government, with society based in mutual responsibility and accountability

The Ainsworth Psalter

The first book published in America, in 1625 (barely 5 years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Plantation

Odaocer

Deposed the last Western Roman Emperor in 476, the supposed date the empire fell

Nika Riots

Riots that almost brought Justinian's rule to an end in 532, lasting five days and killing thirty thousand people

Brendan

A young missionary, a generation behind Patrick, who traveled on a series of remarkable journeys to take the gospel to foreign lands

Bede

Church Chronicler; Ecclesiastical History of the English People; translated much of Scripture into the vernacular of the Saxons, the Celts, and the Highlanders

Green Martyr

A missionary from Ireland

Columba

An Irish church planter and founder of the Iona Community

Chanson de Geste

A grand literary tradition built around the code of chivalry; The Song of Roland is one example; stories of knights, fair maidens, battles, and deeds of valor

The Morovgingians

The ruling dynasty that was deposed by the Pepin the Short who founded the Carolinian Dynasty

The Moors

Saracens; Muslims who invaded the Iberian Peninsula

The Battle of Tours

732; Charles Martel led troops that defeated the Moors and drove them back to the Iberian Peninsula

Ganelon

Roland's step-father; a craven coward, betrayed Roland and his men; finally pulled to pieces by four stallions

Manners

Visible cues by which we communicate to other that they have worth

Squire

A first class, under lord; an unknighted attendant; helped prepare the knight for battle; an apprentice knight

Banneret

Someone who received knighthood in the thick of battle, based on the merit showed during the time of the crisis; a field promotion

Nobility

The first estate; emperors, kings, princes, lords, knights, squires

The second estate

Clergy; patriarchs, bishops, priests, monks, and friars

Disenfranchised

Those who were left out of the estate structure; Mendicants, lieges, serfs, indentures, bondsmen

Peasantry

The third estate: yeoman, guildsmen, merchants, migrants

The Chivalric Virtues

Trustworthy, Loyal, Helpful, Friendly, Courteous, Kind, Obedient, Cheerful, Thrifty, Brave, Clean, Reverent,

Tessera

A cube of colored glass; used for making mosaics

Basilica

Royal hall; large assembly hall; consisting of oblong halls, with narrower, lower compartments on the sides, with columns on the sides

Tempera

A pigment mixed with glue or egg yolk to create a shine

Vellum

The pages of an illuminated manuscript, made from the hides of calves

Leonin

The first composer whose name we know; introduced a second voice; studied and served at Notre Dame in Paris

Monophonic

Means, "one sound", unison; one melody line, and no harmony

Pope Leo X

A Medici, son of Lorenzo De' Medici; pope during the time of the Reformation; received the tonsure at seven, became a cardinal at fifteen and pope at the age of thirty-seven; stood staunchly against Luther

Johann Tetzel

Clergyman assigned to travel through Saxony to sell indulgences to fund the rebuilding of Rome by Pope Leo X

Desiderius Erasmus

Student of Gerharde Groote; itinerate scholar and author; wrote "In praise of folly" in 1509; corrected the Vulgate as a basis for translation into vernacular languages; corresponded with Luther; wrote Freedom of the Will in 1524

Neologism

A new word

Iago

The villain of Othello; deceived his master, Othello

Mimesis

Copying or Imitation

The Globe Theater

A theatrical playhouse in Elizabethan London where William Shakespeare was a player and where his works were preformed

King Louis XIV

aka the Sun King; introduced the practice of the doctrine of the Divine right of Kings to France in his reign, specifically in the suppression of the returning soldiers of the Fronde from !648-1653

Henry VIII

King of England from 1509-1547; divorced Catherine of Aragon; father of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and Edward VI; separated Anglican church from Rome

Oliver Cromwell

Minister of Parliament; showed military genius during the English Civil war; refused off of the crown at the execution of Charles I; made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

Charles II

Son of Charles I; restored to the throne in 1660, after Oliver Cromwell's son proved to be a poor leader

Martin Luther

A peasant, born in Saxony to a miner; attended a Brethren of Common Life School; promised to become a monk if God saved him during a thunder storm; Became and Augustinian monk; appointed a founding professor of the new university of Wittenberg; posted the Ninety-Five theses on the door of the Church there, sparking the Great Reformation

Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor, Nephew of Catherin of Aragon, father-in-law of Mary I of England; Presided over the Diet of Worms; fought against the Muslims fifty miles from Vienna

Ulrich Zwingli

1484-1531; reformer who working in Zurich; participated in the Marburg Colloquy; died at the Battle of Kappel

John Calvin

1509-1563; Institutes of Christian Religion; worked in Geneva with William Farel; exiled from Geneva to Strasbourg where he was mentored by Martin Bucer and where he married Idelette; returned to Geneva, where he made the city a center of cultural transformation

Philip Melanchthon

Luther's Lieutenant; professor at wittenberg; wrote 90% of the Augsburg Confession; participated at the Colloquy of Worms

Martin Bucer

1491-1551; studied at a Brethren of Common Life school; became a Dominican Friar and a priest; arrived at the doctrine of Sola Scriptura in 1523; participated in the Council of Marburg and the Colloquy of Worms; went to en gland and helped write the Anglican book of common prayer

Theodore Beza

1519-1605; defender of Calvin and his chief lieutenant; mentored John Knox; advocate for the Waldensians; put in charge of the Genevan academy; succeeded Calvin in Geneva

Cantus Firmus

The tenor line; where the melody was; descants were added above and below the cantus firmus

Introit

A processional Psalm

Perotin

Leonin's student, also served at Notre Dame; added more voices to Leonin's two: First three, and then four

The Black death

aka The Plague; disease that spread via rats, from China to Mongolia and throughout Europe; from 1347-1352, killed 25-75 million people

Hundred Years war

Civil war between the house of Anjou and the House of Valois in France; following the demise of the House of Capet, for the princedoms, dukedoms, and kingdoms that surrounded the French-speaking peoples

Avignon Papacy

The Babylonian captivity of the Church; the papacy was moved to Avignon; including rival popes all excommunicating each other and one another's followers

The Great Schism

1054; The patriarch of the Eastern Church and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated one another and one another's followers; this breach has never been failed

The Hanseatic League

A trade monopoly centered in the Baltic cities of Lubec, Bruges, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Danzig, Hanover

The Scholastic Movement

An academic movement that grew from the university system and the ideas of Thomas Aquinas; also influenced by Peter Abelard

Geoffrey Chaucer

Author of the Canterbury tales

Jan Hus

Founder of the Hussite movement in Moravia, leading to the Moravian brethren

Devotio Moderna

English: The Modern Devotion; movement started by Gerharde Groote

Thomas A Kempis

Author of the Imitation of Christ; student of the Gerharde Groote

Arx Axiom

Fortress of First Principles

The Consolation of Philosophy

Book written by Boethius from prison; God reveals himself perfectly in special revelation-scripture-but also imperfectly in general revelation-through creation

Summa Theologica

Written by Thomas Aquinas in three parts: Prima pars, Prima Secundae and Secunda Secundae, and Tertia pars

Occam's Razor

The fewer the assumptions necessary in a thought or argument, the better the thought or argument

Roger Bacon

A Dominican and then Franciscan monk who; systemized the scientific method; called Doctor Mirabilis; called fro the examination of empirical data and the codification of repeated results

Eric the Red

One of the first settlers of Greenland; Lief's Father

Ultima Thule

A Christian Diocese in North America, founded in 1120

Drakkar

A Viking long ship; also called a dragon ship, long, narrow, graceful form clinker built

Knorr

A Clinker built broad ship, designed to carry cargo; with a shallow hull and a deep keel

Primogenetor

All or most of the property and headship of the family devolves on the oldest son

Portcullis

An Iron gate that descended once the drawbridge was up or once night had fallen and the gates were shut; behind or sometimes in from of the vast wooden doors to bar entry into the castle

The Greek Idea of the Chain of Being

The old Greek ideal of the chain of being provided a hierarchy of nobility and also of value

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