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A&P ll

The urinary system does all of the following, except
that it
A) excretes excess albumen molecules.
B) regulates blood volume.
C) contributes to stabilizing blood pH.
D) eliminates organic waste products.
E) regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes.

A

Functions of the urinary system include
A) regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
B) regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions.
C) helping to stabilize blood pH.
D) conservation of valuable nutrients.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

A glomerulus is
A) the expanded end of a nephron.
B) a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
C) the source of erythropoietin.
D) attached to the collecting duct.
E) the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron.

B

The kidneys not only remove waste products from the blood, they also assist in the regulation of
A) blood volume.
B) blood pH.
C) blood pressure.
D) blood ion levels.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Urine is eliminated through the
A) liver.
B) urinary bladder.
C) kidney.
D) ureter.
E) urethra.

E

The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by
A) adjusting the volume of water lost in urine.
B) releasing erythropoietin.
C) releasing renin.
D) regulating NaCl levels in the blood.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
A) blood vessels.
B) lymphatics.
C) the ureters.
D) the urethra.
E) the calyces.

C

Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the
A) kidney.
B) urinary bladder.
C) rectum.
D) ureter.
E) urethra.

C

Urine passes, in the order given, through which of the following structures?
A) collecting duct, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter
B) renal pelvis, collecting duct, bladder, ureter, urethra
C) collecting duct, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra
D) renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter, collecting duct
E) collecting duct, ureter, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder

C

All of the following are true of the kidneys, except
that they are
A) located in a position that is retroperitoneal.
B) surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
C) located partly within the pelvic cavity.
D) held in place by the renal fascia.
E) covered by peritoneum.

C

The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the
A) calyx.
B) pelvis.
C) ureter.
D) hilum.
E) pyramid.

D

The renal sinus is
A) the innermost layer of kidney tissue.
B) part of a renal pyramid.
C) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule.
D) a large branch of the renal pelvis.
E) a renal corpuscle.

C

The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A) renal cortex.
B) renal medulla.
C) major calyx.
D) fibrous capsule.
E) renal pelvis.

D

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A) renal papilla.
B) renal pelvis.
C) renal medulla.
D) renal cortex.
E) renal sinus.

B

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
A) pyramids.
B) renal columns.
C) renal pelvises.
D) nephrons.
E) calyces.

A

Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
A) afferent arteriole.
B) efferent arteriole.
C) vasa recta.
D) interlobular arteriole.
E) renal vein.

B

The left kidney lies ________ to the right kidney.
A) inferior
B) superior
C) posterior
D) transverse
E) anterior

B

The position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is stabilized by
A) the overlying peritoneum.
B) contact with adjacent visceral organs.
C) supporting connective tissues.
D) the renal fascia.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

The condition called ________ is especially dangerous because the ureters or renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement.
A) polycystic kidney disease
B) floating kidney
C) pyelonephritis
D) renal calculi
E) renal failure

B

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
A) releases renin
B) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
C) final urine enters here
D) initial filtrate enters here
E) tip of the medullary pyramid

C

The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle)
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) papillary duct
D) renal corpuscle
E) ureter

C

Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions.
A) 500
B) 800
C) 1200
D) 1800
E) 2500

C

In the renal corpuscle, the glomerular epithelium is a layer of specialized cells called:
A) glomerulocytes
B) juxtaglomerular cells
C) tubular cells
D) macula densa cells
E) podocytes

E

Capillaries that surround the proximal convoluted tubules are
A) proximal capillaries.
B) corticoradiate capillaries.
C) vasa recta capillaries.
D) efferent arterioles.
E) peritubular capillaries.

E

The renal veins drain into the
A) abdominal aorta.
B) renal arteries.
C) inferior vena cava.
D) segmental arteries.
E) peritubular capillaries.

C

________ is/are an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.
A) Glomerulonephritis
B) Floating kidney
C) Polycystic kidney disease
D) Pyelonephrosis
E) Kidney stones

A

Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium
A) Clostridium difficile.
B) varicella.
C) Streptococcus.
D) MRSA.
E) All of the answers are correct.

C

________ is an inherited abnormality that affects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
A) Glomerulonephritis
B) Polycystic kidney disease
C) Calculus
D) Renal failure
E) Hematuria

B

Renal columns are
A) internal cavities lined by the fibrous capsule.
B) expanded ends of the ureters.
C) the basic functional units of the kidney.
D) bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex.
E) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.

D

The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A) renal sinus.
B) renal pelvis.
C) renal calyx.
D) renal hilum.
E) renal corpuscle.

B

Major calyces are
A) large branches of the renal pelvis.
B) expanded ends of nephrons.
C) basic functional layers of the kidney.
D) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.
E) the expanded ends of renal pyramids.

A

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A) renal pyramid.
B) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
C) renal corpuscle.
D) renal papilla.
E) collecting tubule system.

C

The region known as the macula densa is part of
A) the proximal convoluted tubule.
B) the distal convoluted tubule.
C) the collecting duct.
D) the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

B

The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the
A) renal corpuscle.
B) filtration membrane.
C) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
D) juxtaglomerular complex.
E) afferent arteriole.

D

Which of the following is not an important function of the kidney?
A) control of total body water
B) control of the electrolyte composition of the blood
C) excretion of excess albumen
D) control of production of red blood cells by bone marrow
E) regulation of blood pressure

C

The filtration of plasma takes place in the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) distal convoluted tubule.
C) papillary duct.
D) renal corpuscle.
E) ureter.

D

Filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) collecting duct.
E) minor calyx.

B

The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) papillary tubule.
E) calyx.

C

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A) releases renin
B) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
C) final urine enters here
D) initial filtrate enters here
E) tip of the medullary pyramid

E

The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the ________ capillaries.
A) peritubular
B) glomerular
C) vasa recta
D) cortical
E) efferent

A

The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) collecting loop.
E) minor calyx.

A

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A) filtration.
B) absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.
C) secretion of acids and ammonia.
D) secretion of drugs.
E) adjusting the urine volume.

B

The process of filtration occurs at the
A) proximal convoluted tubule.
B) distal convoluted tubule.
C) collecting duct.
D) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

E

The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers
A) filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores.
B) fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes.
C) endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.
D) dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule.
E) podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus.

C

The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A) arteries.
B) veins.
C) venules.
D) capillaries.
E) arterioles.

D

The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A) vasa recta
B) medulla
C) cortex
D) pelvis
E) calyces

C

Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A) glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) collecting ducts
D) proximal convoluted tubule
E) glomerulus

C

Renal blood flow is about
A) 1 liter/min.
B) 2 liter/min.
C) 3 liter/min.
D) 4 liter/min.
E) 5 liter/min.

A

The renal threshold for glucose is approximately ________ mg/dl.
A) 75
B) 90
C) 100
D) 140
E) 180

E

Substances larger than ________ are normally not
allowed to pass through the filtration membrane.
A) sodium ions
B) glucose
C) albumin
D) amino acids
E) urea

C

Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following, except
A) produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.
B) increase the glomerular filtration rate.
C) trigger renin release.
D) produce renal ischemia.
E) reduce blood flow to kidneys.

B

The process of filtration is driven by
A) active transport.
B) blood osmotic pressure.
C) blood hydrostatic pressure.
D) renal pumping.
E) solvent drag.

C

Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A) 480
B) 180
C) 125
D) 18
E) 1.8

B

Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate correctly the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: CsHP is capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A) FP = BHP + CsHP - BCOP
B) FP = BHP - (CsHP + BCOP)
C) FP = CsHP + BHP - BCOP
D) FP = BCOP - BHP + CsHP
E) FP = BCOP + (BHP - CsHP)

B

Measurement of the functions of a nephron reveals a glomerular capillary pressure of 69 mm Hg, and a pressure in the capsular space of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the colloid osmotic pressure is 30 mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net filtration pressure in this case?
A) 30 mm Hg
B) 24 mm Hg
C) 69 mm Hg
D) 84 mm Hg
E) 99 mm Hg

B

If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?
A) presence of protein in urine
B) presence of blood in urine
C) permanent kidney injury
D) damage to the glomeruli
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A) increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex.
B) decrease secretion of aldosterone.
C) increase release of angiotensin II by the suprarenal glands.
D) increase filtration into glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.
E) decrease urinary albumin concentration.

A

Calculate filtration pressure (FP) in a nephron with a glomerular hydrostatic pressure of 55 mm Hg, a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg, and a capsular hydrostatic pressure of 15 mm Hg.
A) FP = 10 mm Hg
B) FP = 95 mm Hg
C) FP = 55 mm Hg
D) FP = 45 mm Hg
E) FP = 15 mm Hg

E

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the glomerulus is generated by
A) blood pressure.
B) presence of large, non-diffusible proteins in blood plasma.
C) constriction of the efferent arteriole.
D) protein in the filtrate.
E) filtrate in the capsular space.

B

The main force that causes filtration in a nephron is
A) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
C) osmotic pressure of the urine.
D) capsular hydrostatic pressure.
E) reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule pulls filtrate from blood.

B

The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A) the proximal convoluted tubule.
B) the distal convoluted tubule.
C) the collecting duct.
D) the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) the loop of Henle and the collecting duct.

E

Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
A) active transport.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) cotransport.
D) countertransport.
E) stem cell movements.

E

Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the lumen in the PCT is largely by means of
A) diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport.
E) countertransport.

D

Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of
A) diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport.
E) countertransport.

E

Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A) simple diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport with Na and K ions.
E) countertransport for bicarbonate ion.

D

The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves
A) the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the neurohypophysis.
B) aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells.
C) a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
D) an increase in facultative water reabsorption.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate.
A) The first statement is true but the second statement is false.
B) The first statement is false but the second statement is true.
C) Both statements are true.
D) Both statements are false.
E) Both are true and relate to production of a dilute urine.

E

A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A) excessive ADH secretion.
B) absence of ADH.
C) hematuric oliguria.
D) overproduction of aldosterone.
E) dilation of the afferent arterioles.

B

Antidiuretic hormone
A) increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.
B) is secreted in response to low potassium ion in the blood.
C) causes the kidneys to produce a larger volume of very dilute urine.
D) is secreted by the anterior pituitary.
E) release is insensitive to the osmolarity of interstitial fluid.

A

If a urine sample is distinctly yellow in color, which of the following will be true?
A) Its pH is below normal.
B) It will have the odor of ammonia.
C) It will contain large amounts of urobilin.
D) It will contain excess chloride ion.
E) It will have a low pH.

C

A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to
A) less secretion of aldosterone.
B) increased urinary loss of sodium.
C) reduction of blood pressure.
D) decreased sodium reabsorption.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A) hydrogen ions.
B) penicillin.
C) creatinine.
D) potassium ions.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Which of the following substances undergo tubular secretion:
A) water
B) glucose
C) hydrogen ions
D) sodium ions
E) All of the answers are correct.

C

Which of the following substances are not normally found in the filtrate?
A) chloride ions
B) water
C) protein
D) urea
E) glucose

C

Filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule normally contains
A) hydrogen ions.
B) water.
C) nutrients.
D) urea.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A) relies on countercurrent multiplication
B) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
C) enables production of hypertonic urine
D) site of obligatory water reabsorption.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A) a concentrated urine is produced.
B) less urine is produced.
C) the osmolarity of the urine decreases.
D) permeability to water in the collecting system increases.
E) water reabsorption increases in the loop of Henle.

C

Agents that increase urine excretion are known as
A) diuretics.
B) muscarinic antagonists.
C) alpha-1 antagonists.
D) calcium channel blockers.
E) ADH agonists.

A

As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A) 1
B) 38
C) 63
D) 74
E) 99

E

In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A) a larger volume of urine.
B) urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
C) urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.
D) urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions.
E) urine with less glucose.

D

The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
A) stratified squamous
B) pseudostratified columnar
C) simple cuboidal
D) transitional
E) simple columnar

D

The detrusor muscle
A) moves urine along the ureters by peristalsis.
B) compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.
C) functions as the internal urinary sphincter.
D) functions as the external urinary sphincter.
E) surrounds the renal pelvis.

B

An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is
A) glomerulonephritis.
B) polycystic kidney disease.
C) calculi.
D) renal failure.
E) hematuria.

D

During the micturition reflex,
A) stimulation of stretch receptors in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord.
B) parasympathetic motor neurons that control the detrusor muscle become active.
C) the internal sphincter is subconsciously relaxed.
D) the external sphincter is consciously relaxed.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following, except
A) a decline in the number of functional nephrons.
B) a reduction in the GFR (glomerular filtration rate).
C) increased sensitivity to ADH.
D) problems with the micturition reflex.
E) loss of sphincter muscle tone.

C

Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree, except the ________ system.
A) urinary
B) integumentary
C) digestive
D) endocrine
E) respiratory

D

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