What are the 3 energy-requiring processes of the body?
Basal metabolism, Physical activity, & Dietary thermogenesis
Why is energy required in the process of basal metabolism?
to maintain normal body functions while at rest
Why is energy required in the process of physical activity?
for muscular work
Why is energy required in the process of Dietary thermogenesis?
used to chemically process foods (the process gives of heat)
What are characteristics of Direct Calobrimetry?
Measures heat loss, difficult to conduct
What are ways to measure BMR in humans?
Direct Calobrimetry, indirect calobrimetry, & equations
What are characteristics of indirect calobrimetry?
measures O2 consumption & CO2 production (Respiratory exchange)
What is an example of an equation used for calculating BMR in humans?
Harris Benedict equation (uses height, weight, gender, & age)
Physical activities, thermic effect of food, & basal metabolism account for what percentages of a human's daily total calorie burn?
30-50, 10, 50-65
Age, Lean Body Mass (total weight), Gender, Surface Area, Throxin, Stress, Temperature, Rate of Growth, & Fasting are factor that afffect what?
What are eating triggers?
Hunger & Appetite
What is hunger defined as?
Physiological signals that signal the need for food; physical drive for food
What is appetite defined as?
Integrated response to the sights, smells, thoughts, & tastes that prompt one to eat
What are 3 ways to asses body weight?
"ideal body weight", body composition, & body fat location
Height for weight formulas & BMI are factors in what type of body assessment?
Ideal Body Weight
What does Body Composition measure?
Fat vs Lean
What does the Body Fat Location assessment measure?
How do you calculate the ideal body weight for women?
100# for first 5 feet, then add 5# for each inch above 5 feet
How do you calculate the ideal body weight for men?
106# for first 5 feet of height, then add 6# for each inch of height above 5 feet
"Ideal body weight" +/- 10% equals what?
ideal body weight range
What is a person's BMI?
weight in relation to height
How is BMI calculated?
by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters)
A BMI of <18.5 means what?
A BMI of 18.5-24.9 means what?
A BMI of 25-29.9 means what?
A BMI of >30 means what?
The risk of what increases as BMI decreases?
Minimal risk of mortality is found at a BMI of what?
Moderate risk is found at a BMI of what?
Low risk is found at BMI levels of what?
18-20 & 25-27
What is lean mass comprised of?
bone, cartilage, & muscle (anything but fat)
What percentage of fat is made up of water?
What percentage of muscle is made up of water?
Percent Body Masses of fat for men? for women?
M: 2-3%; W: 11-12%
Percent Body Masses of essential fats
Percent body masses of muscle for men? for women?
Percent body masses of bone for men? for women?
Percent body masses of organs for men? for women?
What is the healthy (normal) body fat percentage for men? for women?
An unhealthy body fat % for young men is _______?
An unhealthy body fat % for men over 40 years of age is _______?
An unhealthy body fat % for young women is ________?
An unhealthy body fat % for women over 40 is ________?
Healthy body fat percentages are different for what group of people?
What are health consequences of Obesity?
Diabetes, HTN, CVA, Atherosclerosis & Hyperlipidemias, some cancers, Sleep Apnea, & Gall Bladder disease
Obesity is known as what type of disease?
What type of treatment does obesity require?
long-term (possibly lifelong)
What improved health outcomes can a 10% reduction in body weight result in?
Lower blood sugar, lower total cholesterol & LDL cholesterol, & lower BP
What fraction of U.S. adults are considered to be overweight?
What group of U.S. adults has the highest rates of obesity?
Obesity ranks what, behind smoking as a cause of preventable death?
Obesity contributes how many deaths per year in the U.S.?
Approximately how much money is spent on weight loss treatments each year?
$30 & $40 billion
What disease is caused by energy imbalance, toxic environment, genetics, & internal controls?
Fat cell development involves what 2 types of fat cell?
Hyperplastic & hypertrophic
What is LPL (lipoprotein lipase) involved in?
Fat Cell Metabolism
The activity of ___________ increase after weight loss?
LPL's rate of activity after weight loss is gender specific, yes or no?
During growth, fat cells increase in what?
When do fat cells increase in size?
When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
What happens if energy intake continues to exceed energy expenditure?
Fat cells increase in number again
If a person loses weight, what aspect of fat cells decreases?
Size (not number)
Body fat increase, Blood Leptin increases, Hypothalamus responds, & food intake decreases while energy expenditure increases in what type of energy balance?
negative energy balance
What happens in response to a positive energy balance?
Body fat decreases, Blood Leptin decreases, Hypothalamus responds, food intake increases & energy expenditure decreases
What is Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone, secreted by?
What does Ghrelin act as?
Grehlin levels are highest when?
What is Adiponectin secreted by?
Adiponectin has an inverse correlation with what?
What might Adiponectin inhibit/
Wgat does adiponectin seem to increase?
Overeating, lack of physical activity, & psychological problems are causes of what?
Why is lack of physical activity a factor of obesity?
Needed to burn calories & increase metabolic rate
What are types of psychological problems that lead to obesity?
Body image, social pressures, coping, & repeated dieting
What is a result of constant dieting?
slower weight loss
What is the explanation behind yo-yo dieting?
after weight loss metabolism adjusts itself to restore body to its previous weight
In the Weinsler study, what theory was being examined?
(Weinsler study) What were the two groups?
24 overweight, postmenopausal women & 24 normal weight (control group)
(Weinsler study) After weight loss, there were no significant differences between the control & study groups regarding what?
(Paz Cerezo et al An Pediatr 2003) recent study which observed that _______ was higher in obese children than normal weight children?
(Das, et al Am J Cin Nutr 2003) Reduction in REE was not different from expected in what specific type of obese patients?
obesity surgery patients
The prices of lower-calorie foods increased by what percent from 2004-2006?
The prices of high-calorie foods have decreased by about ____ from 2004-2006?
What are tips for eating fast food?
don't supersize, think small, & don't make it a habit
How many calories are in a pound?
What is the most energy dense nutrient?
What type of carbs should be reduced?
_________________ while treating obesity can be accomplished by keeping a food/activity diary?
What type of calories should be completely eliminated when treating obesity?
What is the sequence of cognitive therapy?
Thoughts> Emotions/Feelings> Actions & Behaviors
People treating obesity should increase their level of what?
(Nordmann) Over 6 months, an avg. of -3.3 kg was seen in what group?
(Nordmann) What were the two groups in this study?
Low-carb & low-fat
There were no differences in overall weight loss between the 2 groups after how long?
Cardio made no difference in what? (same for both groups)
Cardio lowered triglycerides & increased HDL's for what group?
Cardio lowered total cholesterol & LDL's for which group?
What type of nutrience may help to reduce appetite?
(Weigle) Rotated subjects on diet with varying intake levels of what?
(Weigle) Carb intake was held at what percentage of total calories?
(Weigle) Increasing protein from _________ to __________ resulted in a sustained reduction in calorie intake?
What is Xenical orlistat?
Gastrointestinal fat blocker
Xenical blocks what fraction of the fat consumed?
When taking, patients should follow what type of diet?
Low-fat (<30% of daily calories)
What BMI levels should people have to take Xenical orlistat?
BMI of 30>; BMI of 27> w/ at least one additional risk factor (diabetes, HTN, high cholesterol)
How many subjects were there in the (JAMA, Jan 1999) study?
(JAMA, Jan 1999) What was the avg. weight in this study?
(JAMA, Jan 1999) The study group lost how much more weight than the control group over 1 year?
(JAMA, Jan 1999) The study group regained an avg. of ____ lbs, controls regained _____ lbs. during maintenance?
7 lbs; 12.4 lbs
(JAMA, Jan 1999) What was the rate of recidivism in this study?
(JAMA, Jan 1999) What was the cost of the medication?
$1.10 per pill
In gastric bypass surgery, the surgeon creates an outlet directly to the what?
In gastric banding, the surgeon uses a band to reduce the opening from what to the stomach?
In gastric banding, the size of the opening can be adjusted by inflating or deflating the band by way what?
a post placed in the abdomen (just beneath the skin)
What is a truth of weight maintenance?
weight fluctuation is normal
What are the habits of successful "losers"?
Continuous monitoring, exercise, low fat/high carb plan