Alfred Thayer Mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
Extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
(Debatable) One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
Remember the Maine
A slogan of the Spanish-American war referring to the sinking of a battleship in Cuba. Stirred up by yellow journalism, this lead McKinley to declare war.
"Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain."
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
1898 Treaty of Paris
Ended Spanish American War
1. US gained Cuba, Phillipines, Guam, and Puerto Rico (unicorporated territories)
2. Spanish government recognized cuban independence
3. Spain gave up Philipines for 20 million
A state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs.
Hawaii was a protectorate of America in 1893. America gets more involved in Hawaiian affairs to protect American sugar plantation owners
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
Very rich. Neptune pool in California estate.
He was a Spanish General referred to as "Butcher" Weyler. He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. "Butcher" was removed in 1897.
"You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war."
Hearst to Remington
McKinley and Cleveland
Both refused to intervene in Cuban/Spanish affairs. Yellow Journalism created American frenzy and some demanded intervention. McKinley orders USS Maine into Havana harbor to protect American citizens and property. .........
"The Splendid Little War"
The fresh US military quickly did in the aging Spanish.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. U.S. was granted the right to intervene militarily in neighboring countries in cases of "chronic wrong-doing" such as not paying debts or failure to maintain order. This made the U.S. an "international police power."
Started by French in 1880, but U.S. took over. The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
US acts under Wilson
Wilson created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Child Labor Act, Adamson Act, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
Wilson, Carranza, and Villa
Mexican Politics. Favored Carranza and Villa over Huerta. When Carranza defeated Villa, Wilson withdrew his support of Villa and prepared to reorganize the Carranza government, reluctantly.
"peace without victory"
Wilson said that the U.S. was committed to using war as a vehicle to construct a new world order, with Progressive ideals. Before a joint session of Congress in 1917, he presented a plan for the U.S. for maintaining peace through a permanent league of nations, after the war.
European reaction to Wilson
Inspired by his dream of a democratic, just, and harmonious world order free of poverty, ignorance, and war. They loved him.
The League of Nations
The United States Senate did not approve Wilson's plan to join because they thought the terms were too harsh on Germany.
This was created by the Treaty of Versailles in Geneva, Switzerland to end the international anarchy that plague Europe and to make sure war didn't break out again. The countries of the Big Four and 32 other allied nations were allowed to participate in it. Neither Germany nor Russia were admitted.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
US foreign policy under Wilson
Faced problems with Mexico (in revolution), got involved in Mexican politics, raided Columbus NM, established protectorates in Haiti and Santo Domingo
African colonies image
Another dynamic within the context of war
Americans declared war on Spain after the ship Maine exploded. The War was also caused by Americans' desire to expand as well as the harsh treatment that the Spanish had over the Cubans. Furthermore, the U.S. wanted to help Cubans gain independence from Spain. The war resulted in the U.S. gaining Guam and Puerto Rico.
Established that no citizen can be denied the right to vote on account of sex. Granted women the ability to vote.
Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results.
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Gitlow v. New York
A supreme court case between Gitlow, a socialist, who pushed and called for the establishment of socialism in America. He was arrested for distributing left wing socialist pamphlets.
Established selective incorporation of the Bill of rights; states cannot deny freedom of speech; protected through the 14th amendment
writer or journalist of the early 1900s who uncovered shameful conditions in business and other areas of American life.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.