Is someone smart or dumb? Can we measure this? Does being smart make your life better?
Developed original theory, believed in a single intelligence. Any area where function was lower had to be due to brain damage or motivation not ability.
Two intelligences Fluid (gf) solve novel problems, think on the fly. It is susceptible to brain damage and impacted by aging. Crystal (gc) book knowledge, word knowledge. Resistant to brain damage and aging process.
solve novel problems, think on the fly. It is susceptible to brain damage and impacted by aging.
book knowledge, word knowledge. Resistant to brain damage and aging process.
3 intelligences Componential analytic, book knowledge, carry out tasks, Experiential - Street smart, creative, learn from past, Contextual - people smart understand the situation you are in and act appropriately, practical.
analytic, book knowledge, carry out tasks
Street smart, creative, learn from past
people smart understand the situation you are in and act appropriately, practical.
Multiple intelligences 8-16 anytime the brain is more efficient is an intelligence. Any time the brain works harder in some aspects than others.
brain is what gives better coordination not muscles. Many more.
Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. - Wechsler, 1944
Alfred Binet - Theodore Simon (Measurement)
Contracted by the French Government to measure ability and help in the education on children with what we would call learning disability. Used age based comparison. If the 8 year-old was performing like an average 10 year-old she was seen as ahead or above 100. 10/8 = 1.2 X 100 = 120 I.Q.
Terman & Stanford Binet
Terman a professor at Stanford took the Binet scales and normed them in California. He was more interested in high functioning cases. He and those who followed him track a number of 130 I.Q. individuals over decades. They tended to be successful but not genius or famous.
Issue - they stuck with children in the standford area, but didnt necessarily test with other types of kids
Developed a test for adults. Could not use age reference was first to norm to a population with age correction. Here 100 I.Q. means 50% of cases on either side. He was interested in clinical issues. He later developed a child I.Q. test as well. He is no longer alive and the test has changed some. However, the Wechsler scales are still the most used scales for IQ testing in the world.
The overhead I showed you is important. You should be able to discuss the fact the high score for intelligence does not change by occupation. The low score rises as the cognitive demands of the job increase. Therefore, the average score increases as well. However, some individuals even in what we might perceive as menial jobs perform at high levels on an I.Q. test.