← Chapter 13 Key Terms and People Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Nativist American who opposes immigration. Know-Nothing Party A political party formed by nativists in 1849 that supported measures that would make it hard for foreigners to become citizens or hold office. Middle Class A social and economical level between rich and poor. Tenements Poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people. Transcendentalism The belief that people can rise above material things in life. Ralph Waldo Emerson A transcendentalist and popular writer who believed that Americans should disregard institutions and follow their own beliefs. Margaret Fuller A female transcendentalist who edited the famous publication "The Dial". Henry David Thoreau A transcendentalist who wrote the book Walden and advised self-reliance and simple living away from society in natural settings. Utopian Community Group of transcendentalists who try to form a perfect society. Nathaniel Hawthorne Writer of The Scarlet Letter in the mid-1800s. Edgar Allan Poe Writer of The Raven Emily Dickinson A gifted American poet who wrote many short and thoughtful poems, such as "I'm Nobody, Who Are You?", which were mainly only published after her death. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow The best-known poet of the mid-1800's who wrote popular story-poems, such as "The Song Of Hiawatha" Walt Whitman A poet who praised American individualism and democracy in simple, unrhymed poems, such as the collection "Leaves of Grass". Second Great Awakening A Christian renewal movement in the 1790's and early 1800's. Charles Grandison Finney A very important leader of the Great Awakening who left his career as a lawyer to begin preaching after his conversion in 1821. He told people to prove their faith by doing good deeds. Lyman Beecher A traditional Boston minister who did not want revivals to come to Boston, but could not prevent them because of the First Amendment's guarantee to religion of freedom. Temperance Movement A reform that urged people to use self-discipline to stop drinking hard liquor. Lyman Beecher was a believer of this movement. He thought people who drank alcohol neglected their families' education and corrupted their morals. Dorothea Dix A middle-class reformer who visited prisons throughout Massachusetts and fought for rights for mentally ill people, who at the time were frequently jailed with criminals, lift in dark cells without clothes or heat, and chained to the walls and beaten. Common-School Movement A movement led by Horace Mann which stated that all children should be educated in a common place, regardless of background. Horace Mann A leader of the common-school movement, who also became Massachusetts's first secretary of education. Catharine Beecher Started an all-female academy in Hartford, Connecticut. Thomas Gallaudet Man who improved the lives and education of people with hearing impairments and founded the first free American school for the hearing-impaired in 1817. Abolition A complete end to slavery. William Lloyd Garrison An abolitionist who published a newspaper to support racial equality. He also helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society. American Anti-Slavery Society A group founded by William Lloyd Garrison that wanted immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans. Angelina and Sarah Grimké 2 white southern woman abolitionists who came from a slave holding family in South Carolina. They tried to recruit other white southern women in a pamphlet titled "Appeal to the Christian Women of the South". Frederick Douglass Former slave who escaped from slavery at 20 and later became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1800's. He learned to read and write and had good public-speaking skills. Sojourner Truth Former slave who contributed to the the abolitionist cause. She claimed G-d had called her to travel through the US to preach about slavery and women's rights. Underground Railroad An organization that was a network of people who helped slaves run away. Harriet Tubman A conductor of the Underground Railroad who escaped slavery and led her family and over 300 other slaves to freedom. Elizabeth Cady Stanton An abolitionist who wanted women's rights. Lucretia Mott Friend of Elizabeth C. Stanton who formed the Seneca Falls Convention with her. Seneca Falls Convention The first public meeting about women's rights held in the United States. Declaration of Sentiments A document that detailed beliefs abut social injustice towards women. Lucy Stone A well-known spokesperson for the Anti-Slavery Society who spoke for women's rights. Susan B. Anthony A woman who brought strong organizational skills to the women's rights movement. She argued that men and women should earn equal pay.