English AP Unit 1

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Language and Composition Vocabulary Abstract-Syntax

Abstract

opposed to concrete, not quantifiable
such as emotions, ideals, concepts, feelings, values

Allegory

prose or verse in which the objects, events, or people are presented symbolically, so that the story conveys a meaning other than and deeper than the actual incident or characters are described. Often, the form is used to teach a moral lesson.

Anecdote

a short narrative detailing the particulars of an event. The story usually consists of an interesting biographical incident.

Antithesis

using opposite phrases in close conjunction. "I burn and I freeze," or "Her character is white as sunlight, black as midnight."
The best antithesis express their contrary ideas in a balanced sentence. It can be a contrast of opposites: "Evil men fear authority; good men cherish it."
It can be a contrast of degree: "One small step for a man, one giant leap for all mankind."

Archeype

an original model or pattern from which other later copies are made, especially a character, an action, or situation that seems to represent common patterns of human life.
Includes a symbol, a theme, or a character that some critics have a common meaning in an entire culture, or even the entire human race. Recurring symbolic situations, themes, characters, symbiotic colors.

Attitude

a judgement which an author, character, or work expresses. To be distinguished from tone (the emotion with which views are expressed.)
Tone is emotional, attitude intellectual.

Audience

the particular group of readers or viewers that the writer is addressing.
A writer considers his or her audience when deciding on a subject, a purpose for writing and the tone and style in which to write.

Concrete

opposed to abstract, quantifiable.
Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

Conflict

protagonist/antagonist clash
The tension or problem in the story; a struggle between opposing forces

Central Conflict

the dominant or most important conflict in the story

External Conflict

the problem or struggle that exists between the main character and an outside force (ex. person vs. person, person vs. society, person vs. nature, person vs. supernatural, person vs. technology, etc)

Internal Conflict

the problem or struggle that takes place in the main character's mind (person vs. self)

Criticism

(critical reading) careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument

Deductive

reasoning from the general to the specific

Inductive

reasoning from the specific to the general

Detail

specifically described items placed in a work for effect and meaning. Elements the author chooses to be specific about. In some cases, the elements te author chooses not to be specific about.

Diction

word choice of an author. The sound of a word, denotations, connotations.

Ethos

credibility; ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author.

Logos

logical; persuading the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique, and Aristotle's favorite.
Use deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up claims.

Pathos

emotional; persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can be effectively be used to enhance an argument.

Imagery

a common term of variable meaning, imagery includes the "mental pictures" that readers experience with a passage of literature.
It signifies all the sensory perceptions referred to in a poem, whether by literal description, allusion, simile, or metaphor.

Language

the style of the sentence and vocabulary used in conversation and written communication such as slang, formal, parental, didactic (lesson-like or boring), common.

Syntax

the physical arrangement of words in a sentence. The function of a word, phrase, or clause within a sentence.

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