Begging the Question
occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way; such an argument is circular.
an approved or traditional collection of works. Refers to those anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks.
Greek=logic of time; the order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.
the use of sland or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally accepted for formal writing.
Greek=double proposition; it is a problem offering at least two solutions or possibilities, of which none are practically acceptable.
a type of writing in which the purpose is to inform, explain, describe, or define the author's subject to the reader (ex. cooking instructions, driving directions)
any literature that is removed from reality.
this term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography.
On the AP exam, try to distinguish the unique features of a writer's work from those dicated by convention.
speech or writing that attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution, usually involving negative language.
this term describes the tools of the story teller (also used in non fiction); ordering events so that they build to a climatic moment or withholding information until a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing it creates a desired effect.
On essay exam, this term may also apply to biographical and autobiographical writing (foreshadowing, personification, plot twist, suspense or tension, dialogue).
the style of telling the story. Concentrate on the order of events and on their detail in evaluating a writer's techniques.
a tone of fairness and even discussion of a subject. It usually suggests that there is distance between the author and the subject being discussed. This tone can be cold and impersonal.
ad that implies that everyone is doing it, so you should too
well-known people endorse a product
Faulty Cause and Effect
use of product is falsely credited for a result
Facts and Statistics
using facts to promote the product
the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population
phrases chosen to appeal to your emotions
name calling in reverse; using positive words to talk about an issue
refers to fiction and drama of the late 19th century. Depicted ordinary middle-class existence and its daily concerns like money, society, and marriage.
It also refers to a manner of representing life as close to reality as possible.
Resources of Language
a general phrase for the linguistic devices or techniques that a writer can use to produce an effect such as style, rhetoric, diction, imagery, syntax, figurative language.
all the parts of tone such as diction, imagery, details, language, syntax
the distance between characters, ideas, and things within a story.
Language (in movie and theater: body language) explains the distance.
the author's words and the characteristic way that writer uses language to achieve certain effects. An important part of interpreting and understanding fiction is being attentive to the way the author uses words.
refers to a person's perspective or opinion, particular feelings, beliefs, and desires. It is often used casually to refer to unsubstantiated person opinion, in contrast to knowledge and fact-based beliefs. In philosophy, the term is often contrasted with objective.
a minor or subordinate secondary plot, often involving a deuteragonist's struggles, which takes place simultaneously with a larger plot, usually involving the protagonist. The subplot often echoes or comments upon the direct plot either directly or obliquely.