In politics and culture, an attempt to unify or represent a particular group of people by creating a national identity through characteristics such as common language, shared culture, historical traditions, and national institutions and rituals.19th and 20th century trend in music in which composers were eager to embrace elements in their music that claimed a national identity.
Baroque genre derived from the chacona, consisting of variations over a basso continuo.
Term coined by Arnold Schoenberg for the process of deriving new themes, accompaniments, and other ideas throughout a piece through variations of a germinal idea.
Term coined by Franz List for a one-movement work of program music for orchestra that conveys a poetic idea, story, scene, or succession of moods by presenting themes that are repeated, varied, or transformed.
A method devised by Franz Liszt to provide unity, variety, and a narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material into new themes or other elements, in order to reflect the diverse moods need to portray a programmatic subject.
A piece in duple of 6/8 meter comprising an introduction an several strains, each repeated. Typically there are two strains in the initial key followed by a trio in a key a fourth higher; the opening strains may or may not repeat after the trio
In a march or rag, a period, usually of sixteen or thirty-two measures.
verse and refrain
A form in vocal music in which two or more stanzas of poetry are each sung to the same music (the verse) and each is followed by the same refrain.
Group of singers who perform together, usually with several singers on each part.
Tin Pan Alley
Jocular name for a district in New York where numerous publishers specializing in popular songs were located from the 1880s through the 1950s. Styles of American popular song from that era.
call and response
Alternation of short phrases between a leader and a group; used especially for music in the African-American tradition.
African-American type of religious song that originated among southern slaves and was passed down through oral tradition, with texts often based on stories or images from the Bible.
Amy Marcy Beach
Amy Marcy Cheney Beach was an American composer . She was the first successful American female composer of large-scale art music. Most of her compositions and performances were under the name Mrs. H.H.A. Beach.
Theodore Thomas (October 11, 1835 - January 4, 1905) was an American violinist and conductor of German birth. He is considered the first renowned American orchestral conductor and was the founder and first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Patrick S. Gilmore
Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (December 25, 1829 - September 24, 1892) was an Irish-born composer and bandmaster who lived and worked in the United States after 1848. Whilst serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, Gilmore wrote the lyrics to the song "When Johnny Comes Marching Home", the tune he took from an old Irish antiwar folk song, "Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye". This was published under the name Louis Lambert.