← APEH Ch.12 Historical figures - Renaissance Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Jacob Burckhardt Nineteenth-century historian who formulated the concept that the Renaissance was a "REBIRTH" of classical humanism. wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy". Main features: Italy is birthplace of modern world, revival of antiquity, the perfecting of the individual, secularism. Failed to recognize religion Leon Battista Alberti "On the Family": addressed concern over child mortality rates and how upper-class families attempted to have many children to ensure a male heir to the family fortune. Emphasized INDIVIDUAL ABILITY and human potential to be a well-rounded or universal person. Medici Family bankers. Principal bankers for papacy. Poor leadership + bad loans = decline. 15th century = greatest bankers in Europe. Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who possessed fundamental native endowments, participated in military and bodily exercise, had a classical education, participated in the arts, and followed a standard code of conduct. Aim of a noble is to serve his prince effectively and honestly. Francesco Sforza Duke of Milan. Formed a highly centralized state and successfully devising a system of taxation. Cosimo de' Medici Florence was ruled by a small merchant oligarchy that manipulated the "republican" government. Patron of "Florentine Platonic Academy" and commissioned Marsilio Ficino to translate Plato's dialogues (Neoplatonism), Later commission Ficino for Hermeticism. Lorenzo the Magnificent Ruled Florence. Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists. Federigo da Montefeltro Ruled the independent city-state of Urbino. He built the largest-known library in Italy after the Vatican. He was known as "the light of Italy," and was the ideal Renaissance man. A Great patron of Renaissance culture and known as reliable, honest, and educated. Battista Sforza wife of Federigo da Montefeltro; one of the few women who lived a public life, she often ruled in her husband's absence and was well respected Isabella d'Este Known as the "first lady of the world" and helped rule Mantua. Created a a fine library and court that became an important center of art and learning in the Renaissance. Attracted many artists and intellectuals to Mantua. Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan. Breakdown of Italian balance of power and the feeling of being isolated led him to invite the French to intervene in Italian politics, which was the catalyst for the Italian Wars Charles VIII French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence. Fought over Italy with the Spanish Ferdinand of Aragon, who was invited by other Italian states in need of help, in the first Italian war. Charles I Spanish King. His sack of Rome in 1527 temporarily ended the Italian Wars and led to Spanish domination of Italy Niccolò Machiaveli "The Prince". Expressed concerns over acquisition of political power as a means to restore and maintain order. A prince's attitude toward power must be based on an understanding of human nature, which is self-centered. Politics should not be restricted by moral considerations. Petrarch Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism. First intellectual to characterize Middle ages as dark. Emphasized use of pure classical Latin. Leonardo Bruni Humanist and Florentine patriot. Wrote biography of Cicero, "The New Cicero": fusion of politics and education. Remember Civic Humanism. Influencing humanistic idea of secularizing written history, he also wrote "History of the Florentine people". Lorenzo Valla His work: "The Elegances of the Latin Language" was an effort to purify medieval Latin and restore Latin to its proper position over the vernacular. Created new literary standard. Marsilio Ficino Known for Neoplatonism. Synthesis of Christianity and Platonism. Two primary ideas: Neoplatonic hierarchy of substances and spiritual love. Also known for Hermeticism. There were two kinds of hermetic writing, one stressed occult sciences and the other focused on theological and philosophical beliefs. Also espoused pantheism: seeing divinity in all aspects of nature. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola "Orations on the Dignity of the Man". unlimited human potential. Vittorino da Feltre Humanist. Founded school in Mantua. Liberal studies and physical education. Geared toward education of elite. Only had 2 female students (studied the classics) Pietro Paolo Vergerio "Concerning Character". Emphasized Renaissance view of the value of liberal arts. Stressed liberal arts as key to freedom and the enabling humans to reach their full potential. Laura Cereta Educated. Defended ability of women to pursue scholarly pursuits. Francesco Guicciardini Supposedly the greatest historian between Tacitus in 1st century and Voltaire and Gibbon in 18th century. Wrote "History of Italy and History of Florence", which represented beginnings of modern analytical historiography. The purpose of writing history was to teach lessons. Johannes Gutenberg Responsible for development of printing from movable type. BUT DID NOT CREATE IT (used in china prior to this). Gutenberg's Bible = first true book of the west. Huge impact! 50% of books= religious. One of largest European industries. Massaccio His cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel regarded as first masterpiece of Early Renaissance art Paolo Uccello Early Renaissance artist who became a master of the laws of perspective. Antonio Pollaiuolo Early Renaissance artist. Famouse work: "The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian". Attempts to portray the human body under stress, which exemplifies Renaissance artist anatomical studies. Sandro Botticelli Early Renaissance artist who was interested in Greek and Roman mythology. Famous work: "Primavera". Donato di Donatello Early Renaissance artist. "David" was the first known life-size freestanding bronze nude in European art since antiquity.Reflects the simplicity and strength in the dignity of humanity. Filippo Brunelleschi Early Renaissance architect. Inspired by architecture of Roman antiquity (like columns, domes, and arches). Famous work: The Dome of the Cathedral of Florence and the Church of San Lorenzo. The interiors differed greatly from medieval cathedrals. Leonardo da Vinci Artist who was a figure in the transition between the early and high renaissance. He dissected human bodies in order to understand nature. He wanted to advance beyond realism and started the tradition in the High Renaissance of idealizing nature. Famous work: "Last Supper", which used perspective and idealization of human beings. Raphael High Renaissance artist who attempted to achieve ideal beauty surpassing human standards in his work. Famous work: "School of Athens, which portrays a world of balance, harmony, and order (which were principles of the classic Greek and Roman work) Michelangelo High Renaissance artist (painter, sculptor, and architect). Influenced by Neoplatonism (evident in his figures on the cieling of the Sistine Chapel). Famous work: "Creation of Adam"- ideal human being, divine beauty. "David" - 14 ft tall marble statue, displays beauty of human body and glory of human beings Donato Bramante High Renaissance Architect. Designed the Tempietto. High Ren architecture properties: columns, domes, and sanctuary. Designed a new basilica for Rome, called Saint Peter's. Jan van Eyck Northern Renaissance artist. oil painting enabled variety of colors. Famous work "Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride". Great attention to detail, rendered as observed. Imitate nature by empirical observation of visual reality and the accurate portrayal of details. Emphasis on emotional intensity. Abrecht Dürer Northern Renaissance artist. He studied Italian Art Work to learn their skills and properties. Famous work "Adoration of the Magi". Attempted to integrate details more harmoniously into his work and to achieve ideal beauty by examination of human form Guillaume Dufay Music composer. Combined late medieval stye of France with early Renaissance style of Italy. First to use secular tunes, no longer just for religion. Charles VII After the Hundred Years' War, France was left extremely impaired. However, increased French nationalism led Charles VII to strengthen the king's authority. Also established a royal army and the right to levy taille. King Louis XI Also known as the spider, he made the taille permanent. Gained France more land and recognized for creating a base for the later development of a strong french monarchy Charles the Bold Vassal of King Louis XI. Proved to be major problem when he wanted to make a middle kingdom between France and Germany, opposed by Louis XI. Charles the Bold was unsuccessful/killed and the land he desired went to France Henry Tudor (Henry VII) Defeated last Yorkist King, ending the English war of the Roses. Established Tudor dynasty. As King he: reduced internal dissent, established a stronger monarchy, ended private wars, and controlled irresponsible activity of nobles through the Court of Star Chamber. Successful in extracting income from traditional financial resources. He used diplomacy to avoid wars and did not overburden the landed gentry/middle class, winning much support. He left England stable and prosperous. Isabella of Castille + Ferdinand of Aragon They attempted to unify Spain. Worked to strengthen royal control of government. Replaced the royal council with middle class lawyers educated in principles of Roman law. They reorganized the military forces of Spain, making it the best of 16th century Europe. Introduced the inquisition. Maximilian I Emperor of Habsburg Empire. Centralized administration by creating institutions common to the entire empire. Successful in marriage alliances. King Matthias Corvinus This Hungarian King broke power of wealthy lords by creating a bureaucracy, he supported humanist culture. Ivan III created the principality of Moscow. John Wyclif Creator of English Lollardy. Frustrated at church corruption led him to attack the papacy and medieval christian practices. He alleged that no basis in the scripture gave the pope power and demanded they be removed. He believed the bible to be a Christian's sole authority and be available in the vernacular. Rejected all practices not in scripture. John Hus When lollard ideas spread to Bohemia, he became a lead reformer. Urged elimination of worldliness and corruption of clergy and attacked power of papacy. Pope Pius II issued papal bull: Execrabilis. condemned appeals to a council over the head of the pope as heretical Julius II Also known as the "warrior-pope", he personally led armies against enemies. Great patron of Renaissance culture. Commissioned Saint Peter's Basilica.