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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. 1. Accumulating mutations that disable the checkpoint system that monitors the length of
    chromosome ends
    2. Acquiring mutations that maintain or activate telomerase activity
    3. Acquiring an alternate mechanism to maintain chromosome ends even in the absence
    of telomerase activity
  2. Cancer is roughly defined as cells that reproduce in defiance of the normal restraints placed on cell growth and division and invade areas normally reserved for other cells
  3. Chemical carcinogens and radiation
  4. Malignant
  5. 1. They provide the framework for tumor growth
    2. They provide signal proteins that stimulate cell growth and division,
    3. They secrete proteases that further remodel the extracellular matrix
  1. a Agents identified as cancer causing agents include what?
  2. b What is the definition of cancer?
  3. c Cancer cells avoid replicative cell senscence by what three methods?
  4. d What is an invasive tumor; cancer?
  5. e Tumorigenesis requires the assistance of other cell types. What are the functions of these cells?

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Except for tobacco use, has a clear link between an environmental factor and the establishment of cancer been fully established?
  2. Hypoxia triggers expression of what?
  3. Tumorigenesis requires the assistance of other cell types. What are they?
  4. What is a benign cancer of the epithelial cell with a glandular organization?
  5. What are changes in DNA sequence information?

5 True/False questions

  1. Cells isolated from breast and colon cancer have accumulated ~1 amino acid change in 100 different proteins, but alterations in only 20 of these genes are likely needed for tumor progressionWhat evidence supports the fact that it is not simply the accumulation of large number of mutations that gives rise to a tumor?

          

  2. A
    Which picture shows normal epithelium (of the cervix)?

          

  3. The connective tissue layerThe layer underneath the basal layer of the cervix is what?

          

  4. TelomeraseWhat is a cell that grows and divides out of control; a tumor?

          

  5. The invasion of tumor cells into other tissueMost cancers can be traced back to what?

          

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