Pathophysiology Chapter 21 and 25 study guide

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Dysuria and polyuria are usually signs of?

Cystitis

Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystitis by the presence in pyelonephritis of:

urinary casts

With acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, the pathophysiology includes:

immune commplexes deposit in glomerular tissue, causing inflammation.

The significant signs of nephrotic syndrome include:

severe generalized edema, proteinuria and lipiduria.

Obstruction of the ureter by a renal calculus would cause:

an attack of renal colic consisting of intense spasms of pain in the flank area radiating to the groin. lasts until stone passes or is removed

Predisposing factors to bladder cancer include:

SMOKING.

Wilm's tumor is related to:

Most common tumor in children. Gene on chromosome 11 and may occur with other congenital abnormalties. Usually is unilateral.

With severe renal disease, either hypokalemia or heperkalemia may occur and cause:

CARDIAC DYSRYTHMIAS. develops rapidly, blood test show elevated serum urea nirtogen (BUN) and creatinine as well as metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia, confirming the failure of the kidneys to remove wastes.

The early signs of acute renal failure is marked by:

sudden acute oliguria, increased serum urea.

What electrolytes should be present in the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubules?

sodium and potassium

Most cases of pyelonephritis develop from:

an ascending infection of ecoli.

Dark urine associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis results from:

increased glomerulas permeability which allows gross hematuria. The urine becomes dark and cloudy because of the protein and red blood cells that have leaked into it.

The kidneys are located:

behind the peritoneum (that is retroperitoneally) on the posterior abdominal wall

Hormones that control the reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes include:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Aldosterone, and Atrial natriuretic hormone.

The involuntary control of the bladder is known as:

Incontinenc

Define hemodialysis

dialysis that is provided in a hospital. Wastes move from blood to the dialysate while bicarbonate ions moves into the blood from dialyscate. Blood cells and protein remain in the blood. Unable to pass thru semi-permeable membrane. Movement occurs by ultrafiltration, diffusion, and osmosis. After the exchange is completed, the blood is returned to the patients veins.

An acute glomerulonephritis develops due to what disease or conditions?

A beta hemalytic strept.

The major predisposing factor of malignant tumors in the urinary tract is?

Smoking

Failure of the kidney to develop is called?

Agenisis

In acute renal failure, what are the compensatory mechanisms?

sudden oliguria with increased serum urea. BUN increased and output decreases

The presence of nitrogen wasted in the blood as indicated by elevated serum creatinine and urea levels is noted by the term.

...Azotemia

The most common cause of endocrine abnormalities is?

benign adenoma

When does diabetes mellitus Type 1 usually have it's onset?

Onset in children and young adults. Acute

With diabetes mellitus, polyuria develops due to:

Glucose in the urine exerts osmotic pressure in the filtrate, resulting in a large volume of urine to be excreted (polyuria)

Diabetic ketoacidosis develops from?

insufficient insulin, which leads to high blood glucose levels and mobilization of lipids. May be initiated by an infection or stress, which increases the demand for insulin in the body. May also result from an error in dosage or overindulgence in food or alcohol.

What would be the manifestations of a patient with hypoglycemia in an adult?

staggering, disorientation and confusion.

Name some precipitation factors for diabetic ketoacidosis:

serious infection and increased metabolic rate.

Sings of diabetic ketoacidosis an unconscious person who is exhibiting Kassmaul's respirations;

deep and fast respirations with fruit and sweet breath odor.

Amputation occurs frequently in diabetics because of:

Infectoins in the feet and legs tend to persist because of vascular impairment, and healing is slow, contributing to a high incidence of GANGRENE resulting in amputation.

List some complications of diabetes.

hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketonic coma, neuropathy, infections, amputations, cataracts, fungal infections, pregnancy complications, vascular problems.

Visual impairment in diabetics is due primarily to:

abnormal metabolism in the lens, predisposing to cataracts. capillary basement membrane becomes thick and hard, causes obstruction or rupture of capillaries and small arteries, and results in tissue necrosis and loss of function can cause retinopathy.

Hyperparathyroidism causes:

adenoma, hyperplasia, or secondary to renal failure.

Discuss the cause and physical affects of acromegaly.

effects of excess GH secretion in the adult, usually by an adenoma. Bones become broader and heavier, and soft tissues grow, resulting in ENLARGED feet and hands, a thicker skull and changes in the facial features.

Typical signs of Grave's disease include:

Exopthalamos is evident by the presence of protruding, staring eyes and decreased blink and eye movements.

Characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include:

moon face (rounded puffy) and a heavy trunk with fat at the back of the neck (buffalo hump) and wasting of muscle in the limbs. Fragile skin that may have red streaks as well as increased hair growth (hirtuism)

A goiter will develop with what conditions?

hypothyroid and hyperthyroid conditions.

Diabetes insipidus causes polyuria because:

renal tubules do not respond to the hormone.The latter may be genetic or linked to electrolyte imbalance or drugs.

Causes of long term glucocorticoids include:

Cushing's syndrome. Decreased secretions from adrenal cortex. Surpressed immune response.

What is true about Kussmaul's respirations?

associated with ketoacidosis. Acetone or fruit breathe, drop in responsiveness due to CNS (Central Nervous System)

Hypoglycemia is precipitated by?

an excess of insulin, which cause a deficit of glucose in the blood.

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