the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers - directly or indirectly - about the products and brands they sell.
8 components of marketing communications mix
2. sales promotion
3. events and experiences
4. public relations and publicity
5. direct marketing
6. interactive marketing
7. word-of-mouth marketing
8. personal selling
any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
events and experiences
company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create brand-related interactions
use of mail, telephone, fax, email, or internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers or prospects.
online activities and programs to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales.
people-to-people oral, written, or electronic communications related to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services.
face-to-face interaction with prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders.
8 steps to developing effective communications
1. identify the target audience
2. determine the objectives
3. design the communications
4. select the channels
5. establish the budget
6. decide on the media mix
7. measure the results
8. manage integrated marketing communications
4 objectives for marketing communications
1. category need
2. brand awareness
3. brand attitude
4. brand purchase intention
search for appeals, themes, or ideas that tie into the brand positioning and help establish points-of-parity or points-of-difference.
how marketers translate their messages into a specific communication, can be classified as either informational appeal or transformational appeal.
personal communications channels
let two or more persons communicate face-to-face, person-to-audience, over the telephone, or through e-mail.
nonpersonal communications channels
directed to more than one person and include media, sales promotions, events and experiences, and publicity.
4 common methods for deciding on a budget
1. affordable method
2. percentage-of-sales method
3. competitive parity method
4. objective-and-task method
integrated marketing communications
a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan.
any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotional of ideas, goods, or services identified by a sponsor.
The 5 Ms
1. mission - what are the advertising objectives?
2. money - how much can be spent?
3. message - what message should be sent?
4. media - what media should be used?
5. measurement - how should the results be evaluated?
advertsing goal (or objective)
a specific communication task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period.
aims to create awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products.
5 factors to consider when setting an advertising budget
1. product life cycle stage
2. market share and consumer base
3. competition and clutter
4. advertising frequency
5. product substitutability
3 steps in developing an advertising campaign
1. message generation and evaluation
2. creative development and execution
3. social-responsibility review
5 steps in choosing media to carry message
1. deciding on reach, frequency and impact
2. choosing among media types
3. selecting specific media vehicles
4. deciding on media timing
5. deciding on geographical media allocation
finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired number and type of exposures to the target audience.
advantages: flexibility, timeliness, good local market coverage
disadvantages: short life, poor reproduction, small audience
advantages: combines sight, sound, and motion, appealing to senses
disadvantages: high cost
Four main variable for choosing among media types
1. target audience's media habits
place advertising (out-of-home advertising)
a broad category including many creative and unexpected forms to grab consumers' attention where they work, play, and of course, shop.
effective ad-exposed audience
the number of people with target audience characteristics who actually saw the ad.
involves scheduling advertising in relation to seasons and the business cycle.
calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact.
calls for spending all advertising dollars in a single period, which makes sense for products with one selling season or holiday.
calls for advertising for a period, followed by a period with no advertising, followed by a second period of advertising activity. Useful when funding is limited, items are seasonal, or purchase cycle is relatively infrequent.
continuous advertising at low-weight levels reinforced periodically by waves of heavier activity.
communication-effect research (copy testing)
seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. Can be pretested or posttested.
a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consists of a collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of a particular product or service by consumers or the trade.
includes a variety of programs to promote or protect a company's image or individual products.
5 functions performed by PR departments
1. press relations
2. product publicity
3. corporate communications
the task of securing editorial space, as opposed to paid space, in print and broadcast media to promote, a product, service, idea, place, person, or an organization.
3 major items for MPR
1. establishing the marketing objectives
2. choosing messages and vehicles
3. implementing and evaluating the plan
the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without marketing middlemen
5 elements of a direct mail campaign
2. target markets and prospects
3. offer elements
4. testing elemnets
5. measuring success: lifetime value
a limited area on the web, managed and paid for by an external advertiser/company, designed to supplement a primary site.
generates excitement, creates publicity,and conveys new relevant brand-related information through unexpected or even outrageous means.
another form of word-of-mouth that encourages consumers to pass along company-developed products and services or audio, video, or written information to other online.
6 positions of sales representatives
2. order taker
5. demand creator
6. solution inventor
6 major steps in effective selling
1. prospecting and qualifying
3. presentation and demonstration
4. overcoming objections
6. follow-up and maintenance
contractual sales force
consists of manufacturers reps, sales agents, and brokers who earn a commission based on sales.
5 step workload approach to sales force size
1. group customers into size classes by annual sales volume
2. establish call frequencies for each customer class
3. multiply the number of accounts in each class size by the call frequency to arrive at total workload
4. determine the average number of calls a sales rep can make per year
5. divide the total of annual calls made by a rep to see how many reps are needed.
competitors' strategic positions in major geographic or national markets are fundamentally affected by their overall global positions
operates in 2 or more countries and captures advantages not available to purely domestic competitors.
5 Major decisions in international marketing
1. deciding whether to go abroad
2. deciding which markets to enter
3. deciding how to enter the market
4. deciding on a marketing program
5. deciding on a marketing organization
5 modes of entry into foreign markets
1. indirect exporting
2. direct exporting
4. joint ventures
5. direct investment
standardized marketing mix
keeps costs low, allows for brand image consistency, and enables the firm to leverage ideas quickly and efficiently.
introduces the product in the foreign market w/o any change, a successful strategy with cameras, consumer electronics, and many machine tools that can be costly in the long run.
consists of creating something new, in one of two forms
1) backward invention - reintroducing earlier product forms that are well adapted to a foreign countries needs
2) forward invention - creating a new product to meet a need in another country
price escalation problem
when a company sells abroad it must add the cost of transportation, tariffs, importer margin, wholesaler margin and retailer margin.
branded products are diverted from the normal or authorized distribution channels in the country of prodcut origin or across international borders.
distinct attitudes and beliefs about brands or products from a particular country.
6 ways modern marketing deparments are organized
3. product or brand management
the process that turns marketing plans into action assignments and ensures that they accomplish the plan's stated objectives.
4 types of necessary marketing control
1. annual-plan control
2. profitability control
3. effiency control
4. strategic control
a comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a company's marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities to identify problems and opportunities and to recommend improvements.
6 components examined in a marketing audit
1. macroenvironment and task environment
2. marketing strategy
3. marketing organization
4. marketing systems
5. marketing productivity
6. marketing function