tiny droplets of sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the atmosphere that dissolve in water and return to Earth's surface
- Important because it has damaged lakes, killing fish and plants.
a built up area consisting of a central city and its surrounding suburbs
(similar to the term "urbanized area", shows the extent of a city's influence)
refers to benefits or advantages (savings, cost reductions, etc.) resulting from the spatial clustering of activities and/or people
concentration of trace substances at a greater level than occurs in average air, human causes include mainly motor vehicles, industry, and power plants
- Important because it can damage property and adversely affect the health of people, other animals, and plants.
U.S. companies are the largest single producer with plants in 35 states producing about $39.1 billion in products and exports. U.S. supply is comprised of three sources, primary, imports and recycled
- Important because it is a large industry that is important in transportation, packaging and building and construction.
Assembly line production/Fordism
Form of mass porduction in which each worker is assigned on specific task to perform repeatedly.
-industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for continuous flow of work pieces in mass production operations
- Important because it allowed for goods to be produced at a rate comparable to the demand for many of those products, made for more efficient manufacturing industries.
Bid rent theory
refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD increases
- Important because it provides an explanation as to the spatial distribution of urban areas.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of trasportation to another.
Canadian industrial heartland
the St. Lawrence Valley - Ontario Peninsula. The region has several assets: centrality to the Canadian market, proximity to the Great Lakes, and access to inexpensive hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls.
An organization that provides communications and networking services., the ratio of output power to input power for a given carrier. If the amp uses 10 watts to produce 5 watt carrier, you have 50% efficiency.
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
The idea that when a new industry opens in an area, it wil create jobs, infrastructure, and money which will later encourage more industries to develop in the same area.
the dispersal or decentralization of industry
process of social and economic change caused by removal of industry, and later move on to the tertiary sector.
(how MDCs moved on after the 1800s.)
..., primary (taking raw materials from earth - agriculture, mining), secondary (manufacturing - textile or auto industries), tertiary (providing goods or services)
..., a form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas
..., any natural resource that can be converted into other forms of energy
Trading center where goods are exported and imported without cost. (We learned about centers of trade.), a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
Export processing zone
an area in a country that has removed some or all of their trading barriers in hope of attracting new businesses.
costs that do not change regardless of economic factors
An industry that can be located anywhere because the materials it needs are relatively cheap to transport.
Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitte by the surface.
An area where economic growth is mainly concentrated.
..., central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture. Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent
Industrial location theory
..., Alfred Weber, the selection of optimal factory locations has much to do with the minimization of land, labor, resource, and transportation costs, variable-cost framework that affects location of factory sites
Industrial regions (place, fuel source, characteristics)
..., Place: a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character; Fuel: material such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned to produce heat or power; Source: a place, person, or thing from which something comes or can be obtained; Characteristics: a feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify it; Industrial Regions: a region with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Industry (receding, growing)
..., a group of businesses that produce a similar product or provide a similar service.
..., the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization., the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
International division of labor
..., the specialization, by countries, in particular products for export.
An industry for which labor costs make up a high percnetage of total expenses.
..., A site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically at their lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue
Major manufacturing regions
..., Parts of the world which play a large role in industry, Eastern Anglo America, Western and Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia
..., a feature of econmic development in peripherial countries where by the host country establishes areas with favorable tax regulatory,and trade agrements in order to attract foriegn manufacturing operations the goods manufactured in these zones are primarily destined for the export global market
Manufacturing/warehouse location(industrial parks,agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, environmental considerations)
..., based on the principle of agglomeration; industrial parks can provide companies with tax breaks to locate their industrial plants at that particular location; shared services can greatly reduce costs
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
central place in an area from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
The idea that more spending will lead to more wealth and consumption than was initianally spent in the beginning.
North American Free Trade Agreement; treaty between Canada, the United States, and Mexico which removed all trade barriers and tariffs.
A decision by a corportion to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
depletion of a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation (found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 km or 9 to 30 m above Earth's surface.)
Plant location (supplies, "just in time" delivery)
..., Plant location may be understood as the function of determining where the plant should be located for maximum operating economy and effectiveness.
..., a time in society that came after the Industrial Revolution
..., method of preserving food. Cool temperatures slow the growth of microorganisms but not destroy them. Food will last longer
..., the eventual depletion of the fossil fuels on which energy-dependent economies rely heavily.
where a country's resources should be directed, Tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources.
Special economic zones (China)
these include the Pudong District, Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and the Hainan Province (all of these are coastal areas providing vital economic advantages for the country of China)
Specialized economic zones
specific regions in a country that allow for special economic regulations that are different in other regions of the same country (these include incentives such as lower tax rates and tariffs)
the idea that losses in one area may be made up by savings in another (e.g. cutting off workers saves the company a great sum of money)
the minimum number of people needed to support the service, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service.
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
purposely destroying a location's identity through industrialization and the changes it causes
the idea that one country(country A) can produce products that another country (country B) can't; the other country (country B) will then trade for those products with its own products that the other country (country A) can't produce
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
the ability of a product to be available to any consumer in the world at any time the consumer wants it. (McDonald's is available to anyone in practically any part of the world.)
a cost that changes as a company's activities or businesses change (With airlines, the price of fuel changes depending on the flight)
..., creator of least-cost theory that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization
an effect by which a product gains weight as it goes through the manufacturing process. (A coke starts as an aluminum can, after which water and coke syrup will be added causing its weight to increase)
an effect by which a product reduces its weight as it goes through the manufacturing process. (Steel starts as heavy iron ore, after which the iron ore will be purified causing its weight to decrease)
a city that is deemed an important focal point in the global economic sector. (New York City, Tokyo, London)